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Home / Bare Acts / Central Acts and Rules / Transport Laws / Merchant Shipping Act,1958 / Rules Relating To The Examination Of Masters And Mates, 1954

Rules Relating To The Examination Of Masters And Mates, 1954

The Rules Relating To The Examination Of Masters And Mates, 1954

Published in the Gazette of India, 1954, Pt. II, Sec. 3, p. 1513. Deemed to be in force by virtue of Sec. 87 read with Sec. 461(3) of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 (44 of 1958). Reproduced here as amended from time to time.

1995

S.R.O. 1965, dated 12th June, 1954. – In exercise of the powers conferred by Sec. 21 of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act, 1923 (21 of 1923) , and in supersession of all previous Rules published on the subject, the Central Government hereby makes the following rules to regulate the granting of Certificates of Competency to Masters and Mates in the Mercantile Marine.

The rules shall come into force on the 12th June, 1954.

Rules Relating To The Examination Of Masters And Mates

CHAPTER I

Introductory

  1. Authority for Rules.– These rules are issued in pursuance of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act, 1923 (21 of 1923).

By Secs. 15 and 21 of that Act provision is made for holding examinations for grant of certificates of competency and power is given to the Central Government to make rules for the conduct of such examinations and the qualifications of the applicants.

In accordance with Sec. 11 of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act, 1923, every Indian foreign-going ship* and every Indian home trade ship of 300 tons net tonnage or upwards when going to sea from any place in India shall be provided with officers duly certificated under this Act according to the following scales :

(a) in any case with a duly certificated Master;

(b) if the ship is 300 tons net tonnage or upwards, with at least one officer besides the Master holding a certificate not lower than that of Mate.

An officer is not duly certificated unless he is the holder for the time being of a valid certificate under the Merchant Shipping Act of a grade appropriate to his station in the ship or of a higher grade. A valid certificate means a certificate of competency granted by the Central Government or by the Government of the U.K. or of a Commonwealth Country or of a British Colony or possession which has been declared by Order Council made under Sec. 102 of the United Kingdom Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, to have the same force as a certificate of competency granted under that Act (see Appendix J), or a certificate of service granted by the Ministry of Transport, United Kingdom (see rule 17).

By Sec. 13 of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act, any person who

(a) having been engaged as one of the officers mentioned in Sec. 11, goes to sea as such officer without being duly certificated, or

(b) Employs a person as officer in contravention of Sec. 11, without ascertaining that the person so serving is dulu certificated, shall be liable for each such offence to a fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

CHAPTER II

General

1A. Applications to be Examined and Conditions of Entry.

  1. Examination of aliens.– No alien may be examined for a certificate of compertency as Master (foreign-going), Master (home trade) or Male (home trade), without the prior approval of the Central Government.

Explanation. – “Alien” means a person other than a citizen of India or a Commonwealth Country.

  1. Proof of nationality.– Every candidate for a certificate of competency of any grade will be required to produce proof of nationality.

Proof of Indfian Nationality will, in ordinary circumastances, involve the production of a birth certificate or of a certificate of naturalisation. If an applicant for examination cannot produce such a certificate he will be asked to furnish such documentary evidence of nationality or of birth and nationality of parents as he may be able to obtain, and, if necessary, the case will be referred to the Director General of Shipping for verification. If the applicant is not an Indian subject, he should, as a rule, be able to produce some official document testigfying to his nationality. If there is any doubt as to the authenticity of such document, the Examiner will consult the nearest appropriate Consular Officer. If necessary, the case will be submitted to the Central Government for consideration.

  1. Days and places of examinations.– The days and places at which examinations are held are shown in Appendix A.
  2. How to apply.– Candidates for examination must fill up a form of application [form Exn. 2 (India)], at Mercantile Officer. The form, properly filled in, together with the candidate’s testimonials discharges and birth, first aid and watchkeeping certificates, should be lodged with the Principal Officer, Mercantile Marine Department of the port at which the candidate desires to be examined, at least a week before the day of examination; and the candidate must conform to any rules in this respect which may be printed by the Central Government. In the absence of the necessary verification of the discharges and testimonials, etc., the candidate cannot be examined.
  3. How to apply in special cases.– In cases wnere a candidate is in doubt as to vhether his service complies with the requirements of the rules, and wishes to submit his case for special consideration, all certificates, discharges, testimonials and watchkeeping certificates together with the form of application [exn. 2 (India)] duly completed, should be submitted to the Principal Officer, Mercantile Marine Department at Bombay, Calcutta or Madras.
  4. Enquiries.– All other enquiries regarding examinations should be made and dealt with in same way. The point on which information is sought should be clearly stated and certificates, discharges, testimonials, etc., should always accompany the enquiry. Enquiries from candidates abroad should be addressed, direct to the Chief Examiner of Master and Mates, C/o. Directorate General of Shipping, Commerce House, Ballard Estate, Bombay-1.
  5. Applications-Particulars of sea service.– A candidate’s eligibility for examination will depend (amongst other things) upon the amount of sea service which he has performed and upon the ranks which he has held on board the various vessels in which he has been employed. It is, therefore, imperative that the particulars which the candidate inserts in Division H of the application form [Exn. 2 (India)], should be accurately stated.

Candidates for certificates, for which service as watchkeeping officer is required, must also produce certificates of watchkeeping service signed by the Master of the vessels on which they have served. A specimen form of this certificate is shwon in Appendix H.

It must be clearly understood that the amount of service laid down in the rules for each grade of certificate of competency is the absolute minimum that can be accepted, and unless a candidate can prove the full amount he cannot be admitted to the examination.

  1. Fraud and misrepresentation.-Any person who makes, procures to be made or assists in making, any false representation for the purpose of obtaining for himself or any other person, a certificate either of competency or service is for each offence liable to be punished for cheating under Sec. 420 of the Indian Penal Code and also for knowingly giving false information to a public servant under Sec. 182 of the Indian Penal Code.
  2. Attempted bribery.– If a candidate offers or attemps to offer any gratification to any officer of the Directorate General of Shipping or the Mercantile Marine Department, for the purpose of being shown any favour in the examination, he will be regarded as having committed an act of misconduct and will be rejected. He will not be allowed to be examined again until a period of at least twelve months has elapsed from the date of the rejection of his candidature.
  3. Testimonials required.– Testimonials as to’Character’, including sobriety, and to experience and ability, on board ship for at least the last twelve months of sea service preceding the date of application to be examined, will be required of all candidates.
  4. Unsatisfactory conduct.– Candidates who have neglected to join their vessels after having signed articles, or who have deserted their vessels after having joined or who have been found guilty of gross misconduct on board, will be required to produce satsifactory proof of two years subsequent service and good conduct at sea unless the Director General of Shipping after investigation, should see fit to reduce the time.
  5. Deafness and other physical and mental disabilities.– If during the progress of the examinatioin the Examiner finds that candidate is afflicted with deafiness, with an impediment in his speech, or with some other physical or mental infirmity, and upon further investigation is satisfied that the degree of infirmity is such as to render the candidate incapable of discharging adequately the ordinary sea-going duties of a Master or Mate, he will not allow the candidate to complete the examination and will return his examination. fee; every case in which this action is taken will be reported to the Director General of Shipping.
  6. Aliens-Knowledge of English.– Aliens who have been admitted to the Examination under rule 2 must prove to the satisfaction of the examiners that they can speak and write English sufficiently well to perform the duties required of them on board Indian and British vessels. If a candidate fails through ignorance of the English language he will not be re-examined for a further six months.
  7. Issue of certificates.– If the candidate passes he will receive a form Exn. 16 (India) authorising the Principal Officer to whom it is addressed to issue the certificate. It is, therefore, important that the port at which the certificfate is to be issued should be the same on both the form Exn. 16 (India), and the form Exn. 2 (India). If circumstances involve any alteration, the Examiner will see that both forms are altered so as to avoid delay in the issue of the certificate. A candidate appearing for a Second Mate (Foreign-going) Certificate of Competency must be in possession of a Radar Observer’s Certificate before a Certificate of Competency is issued to him. If the candidate is partially successful or unsuccessful, he will receive from the Examiner form Exn. 16 C(India). The candidate must retain this form and produce it to the Examiner when he next presents himself for examination.
  8. Service found to be insufficient.– If after a candidate has passed the examination it is discovered on further investigation that his service is insufficient to entitle him to receive a certificate of the grade for which he has passed, the certificate will not be granted to him. If, however, the Director General of Shipping, is satisfied that the error in the calculation of the candidate’s service did not occur through any fault or wilful misrepresentation on his part, he may either return the fee to him or place it to his credit. Should the candidate’s service entitle him to a certificate of lower grade it may be granted to him, and the difference, if any, between the fee paid by him for the higher grade certificate and the fee payble for the lower grade certificate will be returned to him or placed to his credit. The higher grade certificate will not be granted until the candidate has made up his deficiency in service, and has been re-rexamined in all the subjects, but the Director General of Shipping at his discretion ‘dispense with the re-examination.
  9. Certificates of service.– A person who has attained the substantive rank of Lieutenant in the Indian Navy and is able to prove seven years sea service may apply for the grant of a Certificate of Service as Master of a foreign-going ship without examination. This certificate will not entitle the owner to go to sea as Master or Mate of a home trade ship. Temporary and Reserve Officers are not eligible for Certificates of Service.

Applications for certificates of service should be made on printed form Exn. 18, obtainable free of charge from the Director General of Shipping, Commerce House, Currimbhoy Road, Ballard Estate, Bombay, or the Principal Officer, Mercantile Marine Department at Bombay, Calcutta or Madras. In the United Kingdom, form Exn. 18 may be obtained from the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen, Llantrisant Road, Llandaff, Cardiff, or from the Superintendent of a Mercantile Marine Office.

Applicants on duty in India should submit their applications through the Commander-in-Chief, Indian Navy, for transmission to the Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation in the United Kingdom, through the High Commissioner for India Naval Adviser’s Department, London or if on duty in the United Kingdom, direct to the High Commissioner.

Applications will be forwarded after scrunity to the United Kingdom, Ministry of Transport, Berkeley Square House, Berkeley Square, London, W. 1.

Certificates of Service will be issued for the present by the United Kingdom, Ministry of Transport only.

A fee of 1 is chargeable for a Certificate of Service under the Merchant Shipping (Fees) Regulations, 1952.

  1. Examination of Indian Naval personnel.– (a) Master (foreign-going) and Master (home trade). – Indian Naval Officers holding, or eligible for the grant of a Certificate of Service as Master (foreign-going), may be admitted to the examination for a Certificate of Competency as Master (foreign-going) without taking the examination for the lower grade certificates. Officers not eligible for a Certificate of Service but who under the provisions of sub-rule (c) of this rule obtain a Certificate of Competency as Second Mate (foreign-going) or Mate (home trade) may have their service re-assessed and those who have performed the overall service necessary to qualify for admission to the examinations for Master (foreign-going) or Master (homne trade) may be admitted immediately to these examinations.

(b) Where an officer claims that he is eligible for the grant of a Certificate of Service as Master (foreign-going), the application for admisssion to the examination, together with relative papers, should be submitted to the Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates for a decision as to whether the application may be accepted.

(c) Second Mate (foreign-going) or Mate (home-tade).- Service as an executive officer in sea going ships of the Indian Navy may be accepted at full rate towards the four years qualifying service required for admission to the examination for Second Mate (foreign-going) or Mate (home-trade), but before a certificate can be issued officers must have performed qualifying service in Merchant Ships as follows-

(i) for second Mate (foreign-going) either 12 months in foreign-going vessels or 18 months in the home trade; or

(ii) for Mate (home trade) 12 months in merchant ships.

(d) Indian Naval Officers who have commpleted four years qualifying sea service in the Indian Navy but have not performed any sea service in Merchant Navy may be admitted to the examinations, and if successful, they will be given a latter that they have passed the examination Certificate will not, however, be issued until the prescribed periods of Merchant Navy, service have been completed.

(e) Service performed by Deck Ratings on sea going ships of the Indian Navy may be accepted at two-thirds rate towards the qualifying period of four years sea service, and service performed by visual signalling sailors of the Communication Branch may be accepted subject to a maximum period of two years, at one-third rate, towards the qualifying period of Second Mate (Foreign-going) and at one-half for the Mate (home trade).

(7) The applications of officers and ratings wishing to be examined should be made, if on the Active List, through their Commanding Officers, and if on half-pay direct to the Commander-in-Chief, Indian Navy, who will, in either case, forward the applications to the Director General of Shipping.

Certificates Lost or Exchanged

  1. Copies of lost certificates.-An applicant for a certified copy of a lost Certificate either of competency or service, should complete a form of application Exn. 23 (India), giving the necessary particulars, and hand it to the Principal Officer, Mercantile Marine Department, Bombay, Calcutta or Madrs. A declaration as to the circumstances in which the certificate was lost must be made by the applicant before the Principal Officer who will state thereon whether a fee is to be charged or not, and will forward the application form to the Director General of Shipping, who will forward a certified copy of the lost certificate for delivery to the applicant. The fee for renewal shall not exceed Rs. 5.

No fee is chargeable if the applicant can prove that the certifidate was lost through shipwreck or fire.

  1. Exchange of certificate.– An officer holding an old-type certificate may exchange it for a certificate of the same grade in book form or payment of a fee of Rs. 2. Application should be made on form Exn. 23 (India) and the fee paid to the Principal Officer who will forward the application to the Director General of Shipping.

Endorsement of Certificates

  1. Recipents of Government awards can have their certificates of competency suitably stamped if they submit evidence of the award together with their certificate to the Director General of Shipping either directly or through a Principal Officer, Mercantile Marine Department.

Holders of a Postmaster-General’s certificate in Wireless Telegraphy, a certificate granted by the Director General of Posts and Telegraphs as Wireless Operator or a Ministry or Transport Radar Maintenance or Observer’s Certificate can similarly have particulars of these certificates endorsed on their certificates of competency (see also Rules 31, 32, 33, and 34).

  1. (a) Every candidate for a certificate of competency of any grade as Master or Mate will be rquired to produce a certificate of proficiency in First Aid which should be to the satisfaction of the Principal Officer. Any certificate which is accepted by the Ministry of Transport, United Kingdom, will also be accepted for the purpose of this rule.

(b) The certificate must be an adult certificate, i.e., obtained by the candidate when 16 years of age or more, and the examination for it must have been passed not more than 3 years before the date of the examination for the Certificate of Competency.

(c) If a candidate does not possess such a certificate of proficiency in First Aid, he should apply some time before he wishes to sit for the examination for a certificate as Master or Mate, to the Port Health Officer, of the Port at which he will sit for examination who will inform him of the available facilities for the instruction and examination of candidates in First Aid.

Sight Tests

  1. (a) Every candidate for a certificate of competency must pass the prescribed sight tests before he can receive a certificate. If circumstances render it necessary for him to be examined in navigation and seamanship before undergoing the sight tests, such examination will be cancelled if he fails to pass either of the sight tests. A pass certificate in the sight test is valid for three months.

Detailed information with regard to the conduct of the examination and the standards required is contained in Appendix C.

(b) Letter Test. – Every candidate for a certificate of competency must pass the letter test. If he obtained a certificate of competency before 1st January, 1914, he will only be required to possess half normal vision using both eyes together. Otherwise he must pass a higher standard, viz., normal vision using both eyes or either eye separately.

(c) Lantern Test.- Every candidate must pass the lantern test or produce a valid pass certificate in the sight tests when seeking to obtain his first certificate of competency. He will not be required to undergo the lantern test on any subsequent occasion.

(d) Examination in the Sight Tests only.- The sight tests are open to all persons serving or intending to serve in merchant ships or in fishing boats, and all such persons are advised to take the earliest opportunity of ensuring that their vision is up to standard. Any such person, wishing to undergo the tests, should make application to a Principal Officer, Mercantile Marine Department on form Exn. 2A (India), and pay a fee of two rupees. This fee will be payable whenever a candidate is examined.

(e) Sight tests are held at Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and Cochin, see also Appendix B.

CHAPTER – III

Grades Of Certificates, Age Limits And Qualifications Required

  1. Validity of Certificate.– Foreign-going certificate of competency as Master or Mate issued on or after 1st January, 1931, will be valid for use on any mechanically propelled vessel, fishing boats excepted, but they will not entitle the holders to go to sea as Master or Mate of a foreign-going sailing ship unless endorsed for that purpose. Candidates who desire a sailing ship qualification can obtain the requisite endorsements to their certificates provided that they can comply with the conditions laid down in rules 31 and 32, and pass the necessary examination in seamanship. Holders of `Ordinary’ certificates issued prior to 1st January, 1931, are entitled to act in their certified capacities in any vessel however propelled fishing-boats excepted.
  2. Second Mate (foreign-going).– The candidate shall not be less than 20 years of age and shall have served at sea in a foreign-going ship:

(a) for not less than three-fourths or forty-eight months or its equivalent, in the case of any cadet who completed a training course in an approved institution, subject to remission provided for in rules 51 and 52;

(b) for not less than three-fourths of forty-eight months or its equivalent, in the case of a direct entry cadet, subject to remission provided for in rule 52;

(c) for not less than forty-eight months or its equivalent, in the case of any other candidate to whom Cl. (a) or Cl. (b) does not apply, subject to remission provided for in rule 52.

  1. First mate (foreign-going).-*A candidate must not be less than twenty-one and a half years of age, and must have served the equivalent of five and a half years at sea in foreign-going ships (see Chapter IV). This period of sea service must include either :

(a) eighteen months in a capacity not lower than that of third of three watchkeeping officers on a foreign-going ship whilst holding a certificate as Second Mate of a foreign-going ship (See also rule 41); or

(b) two years and three months in a capacity not lower than that of First Mate of a home trade ship whilst holding a certificate as Second Mate of foreign-going ship (see also rule 38 for conditions under which service as Second or Third Mate of a home trade ship may be accepted).

  1. Master (foreign-going).– *A candidate must not be less than twenty-three years of age, and must have served the equivalent of seven years at sea in foreign-going ships (See Chapter IV). This period of service must include either

(a) eighteen months as First Watch-keeping Officer of a foreign-going ship where the officer is not next in seniority to the Master; or

(b) twenty-one months as First Watch-keeping Officer of a foreign-going ship where the officer is next in seniority to the Master; or

(c) twenty-one months as Second Watch-keeping Officer of a foreign-going ship carrying only two watch-keeping officers; or

(d) twenty-four months as Second or Third Watch-keeping Officer of foreign-going ship carrying more than two Watch-keeping Officers; or

(e) two years and three months in a capacity not lower than that of First Mate of a home trade ship; whilst holding a certificate of grade not lower than that of First Mate of a foreign-going ship; or

(f) three years as Master of a home trade ship; during at least one year of this service, the candidate must have held a certificate of grade not lower than that of Second Mate of a foreign-going ship or Master of a home trade ship.

(See also rule 38 for conditions under which service as Second Mate and Third Mate of a home trade ship may be accepted).

For interpretation of Watch-keeping service for the purpose of these rules see rule 41.

  1. Mate (home trade).– A candidate must not be less than twenty years of age, and have served four years at sea (see Chapter IV).
  2. Master (Home trade).– A candidate must not be less than twenty-three years of age and have served five years at sea (See Chapter IV) of which:

(a) One year must have been in a capacity not lower than that of First Mate of a home trade or coasting vessel in charge of a watch whilst holding a Mate’s Certificate for home trade vessels or a Second Mate’s certificate for foreign-going vessels; or

(b) 1½ years must have been in a capacity not lower than Second Mate of a home trade or coasting vessel in charge of a watch, whilst holding a Mate’s Certificate for home trade vessel or a Second Mate’s Certificate for foreign-going vessels; or

(c) 1½ years must have been in a capacity not lower than Third Mate in charge of a watch on a foreign-going vessel whilst holding a Mate’s Certificate for a home trade vessel, or a Second Mate’s Certificate for foreign-going vessels; or

(d) 2½ years must have been in a capacity not lower than Third Mate in charge of a watch in a home trade or coasting ship shilst holding a Mate’s Certificate for home trade vessels or a Second Mate’s Certificate for foreign-going vessels.

  1. Yacht master.– The examination for a Yacht Master’s Certificate is voluntary, and is confined to persons who command their own Indian seagoing pleasure yachts. A Master of yacht who is not also the sole owner, or who is under 21 years of age, is not eligible for examination.

Only one type of certificate will be issued, whether the yacht is foreign-going or cruises within the home trade limits.

The certificate will not entitle the holder to command any vessel except the pleasure yacht or yachts, of which he is at the time the sole owner.

Candidates are not required to have served any specified time afloat, since their sea knowledge will be sufficiently tested by their examination in seamanship.

Testimonials of service need not be shown, but a candidate for examination will be required to produce a statutory declaration to the effect (1) that he is the sole owner of the yacht; (2) that the yacht is sea-going; (3) that it is not to be used for trading purposes. He will also be required to fill up the form of application [Form Ex. 2 (India)] and pay the fee of Rs. 30 at a Mercantile Marine Office, as prescribed in rule 93.

In all other respects, except that the candidate will not be required to produce a “First Aid” Certificate, the rules relating to the examinations of Masters of foreign-going ships will apply.

  1. Sailing ship endorsements (foreign-going certificates).– A candidate for a sailing ship endorsement of any grade who has not previously held an endorsement of a lower grade or an”Ordinary” certificate of a lower grade issued prior to January 1931, must prove that he has served 12 months in the foreign trade or 18 months in the home trade in a square-rigged sailing vessel. Service in vessels with auxiliary steam or motor power, which use their propelling machinery only in calms or during light winds, is considered as service performed in sailing vessels.

Subject to the above qualification, a candidate may be examined for a sailing ship endorsement of any grade at the same time as he is examined for a certificate of competency of the same or of a higher grade. If a candidate wishes to be examined for a sailing ship endorsement only, he must possess a certificate of competency of at least the same grade as the endorsement which he requires.

  1. Sailing ship endorsement (home trade certificate).– A candidate must prove that he has served at least 12 months in the foreign or home trade in a square-rigged sailing vessel.
  2. Voluntary examination in compass deviation.– Any person holding a certificate of any grade in the foreign or home trade, or as Master of his own pleasure yacht, who wishes to pass a voluntary examination in compass deviation, can be examined upon filling up the usual form of application and paying to the Principal Officer, the fee of Rs. 15 (see Appendix A).

If the candidate passes the examination his certificate will be endorsed to that effect. In order to pass, he must obtain 70 per cent of the aggregate marks. (For syllabus see Appendix L).

  1. Voluntary examination in signalling.– All persons who hold or have passed an examination for, a certificate of competency of any grade may undertake the voluntary examination in signalling.

If the candidate passes, his success, with the date and place of passing, will be recorded upon his certificate of competency.

Candidate may be examined at any port where examinations are held upon filling up the form of application [Exn. 2(India)] and paying the fee of fifteen rupees. (see AppendixD).

No fee, however, will be charged for this examination if it is taken when a candidate is also examined for any certificate of competency.

CHAPTER IV

Rules For Estimating Sea Service

  1. Sea service.– Qualifying sea service except as hereinafter provided, must be performed in the Deck Department.

For the purpose of these Rules, sea service is reckoned from the commencement of the voyage to its termination. Certificates of discharge for service in the foreign trade will generally be accepted as proof of sea service, but certificates of discharge for service in this home or coasting trades will be carefully verified by the local Examiners. The Examiners will be careful to see that these discharges have not been tampered with in any way.

Where service in charge of a watch is required, certificates of watch keeping service must also be produced (see Appendix H).

For all certificates of competency as Master or Mate in the Merchant Navy, the qualifying service usually required is service performed in ordinary trading vessels. While the Rules provide for the acceptance in part of certain kinds of non-trading. service ( e.g that performed in fishing boats, yachts, pilot vessels, etc.) non-trading service not specially provided for in the Rules cannot be accepted without the special sanction of the Central Government.

  1. Nature of service determined by actual position on board ship.– Sea service, in whatever trade it may be performed, cannot be regarded as qualifying for examination for certificates of competency, unless it can be verified by reference to the articles of the ship in which it was performed. For example, service claimed by testimonial or otherwise to have been as Mate when the actual rating as shown by the articles was only that of the boatswain, will not be accepted where officer’s service is required.
  2. Sea service of foreign-going certificates.– or foreign-going certificates thetern1 “sea service” means, unless otherwise stated, service performed in foreign-going vessels. (see also rule 38).
  3. Service in home trade.– (1) For home trade certificates, service in the home trade is accepted in full, except service between Dhanushkodi/Talaimannar which will only count as half up to a maximum of six months for home trade certificates.

For foreign trade certificates service in the home trade is regarded as only equivalent to two thirds of the time served in the foreign trade; provided, that where service on a home trade voyage covers a non stop run between two ports of at least 500 miles, the service will be recognised as equivalent in all respects to service in foreign going ships, subject to the following conditions.

Applications of candidates who claim sea service on home trade voyages as equivalent to service in foreign-going ships are to be submitted to the Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates for approval together with a signed statement from the owner or Master giving the name of the ship, dates and the ports between which non-stop runs or 500 miles or more have been made.

Each application will be considered on its merits by the Chief Examiner whose decision will be final.

(2) The amount of service as Master or First Mate in the home trade which will qualify a candidate for examination for a certificate as Master or First Mate (foreign-going) is shown in rules 26 and 27.

In addition, the Director General of Shipping will be prepared to consider on its merits any application by a candidate for a First Mate’s (foreign-going) certificate for the acceptance of time served as Second or Third Mate in the home trade. The acceptance of such service will be subject to the following general considerations ;

(a) An adequate proportion of the time must have been spent in actual service at sea, i.e., outside partially smooth water limits.

(b) The service must have involved real responsibility, and an adequate proportion of it must have been spent in sole charge of a watch at sea.

(c) The service must have been performed while in the possession of a certificate as Second Mate (foreign-going).

The Director General of Shipping will also be prepared to consider on their merits application for the acceptance of time spent as Second or Third Mate in the home trade as qualifying for a Master’s (foreign-going) certificate, subject to the following conditions.

(d) The service must have been service in sole charge of a watch at sea and must have been performed while in possession of a certificate as First Mate (foreign-going).

(e) The greater part of the service must have been on voyages in respect of which the extreme ports visited were at least 500 miles apart. Not more than one-third of the service submitted may be made up of voyages of shorter length, and in no case will service on regular runs between near neighbouring ports which take less than two watches (such as the ferry service between Dhanushkodi and Talaimannar) be accepted.

In all such cases, the candidate’s application should be accompanied by certificates of watch-keeping service signed by the Master (see Appendix H).

The proportion of the time which will be accepted will depend upon the particular circumstances of each case, but in no case will time spent in the home trade be accepted as equivalent to more than two-thirds of the same period of time spent in the foreign trade, except as specified in rule 38 (1). Every case in which a candidate claims such service as qualifying will be referred to the Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates.

  1. Service in ships trading abroad.– Service in ships exclusively trading abroad will be accepted as equivalent to service in foreign-going ships provided that the distance between the extreme ports visited during the course of the voyage is at least 500 miles. If the distance is less than 500 miles, the service will only be accepted as equivalent to service in the home trade.
  2. Officer’s service.– Service as First Mate means service as the officer next in seniority to the Master. Service as junior or auxiliary First Mate, or as first Mate under a “Chief Officer” will count for qualifying purposes as equivalent to service as the second of three watch-keeping officers.

The facts in each case must be clearly established by the candidate’s certificates of watch-keeping service.

For definition of “Watch-keeping” see rule 41.

  1. Watch-keeping service.– (1) For First Mate.-Candidates for Certificates of Competency as First Mate must be able to prove by production of certificates either :

(a) eighteen months service in foreign-going ships of which at least 9 months have been spent in full charge, or in effective charge, of a watch for not less than 8 hours out of each 24 hours service at sea; or

(b) the equivalent service in the home trade [see rule 26(b) and 38).

“Effective charge of a watch”means responsibility for the watch but it does not preclude occasional supervision by a senior officer, provided that the senior officer does not at any time take charge of the watch. Where, however, the senior officer does take charge the watch is doubled and the fact should be noted for entry in the Certificate of Watch Keeping Service.

An officer who is the junior of two officers keeping doubled watches during a voyage may count towards the period of 18 months qualifying service two-thirds of the watch-keeping time so served up to a maximum of nine months (i.e.13½ months actual service).

The exact nature of a candidate’s service must be clearly established by one or more Certificates signed by the Master in the form indicated in Appendix H.

(2) For Master.-During the whole of the qualifying service between First Mates and Master’s Certificates specified by the Rules, candidates for a Master’s Certificate will be required to have served in full charge of a watch for eight hours out of every 24 hours service at sea. If performed on a voyage during part of which watches have been doubled, such service will be accepted only on condition either :

(i) that, during the period when watches were doubled, the candidate served as the senior of two bridge-keeping officers, or

(ii) where the candidate served as the junior of two bridge-keeping officers, that the Examiner is satisfied that watches have been doubled only occasionally in circumstances calling for the exercise of special care in the navigation of the vessel.

In the latter case the time during which watches were doubled will not count as qualifying time but the remainder of the voyage may be accepted.

The whole period of watch-keeping service claimed by a candidate must be Levered by one or more certificates made out and signed as prescribed in Appendix H.

  1. Service in possession of a certificate.– Officer’s service, to be recognised as qualifying for purpose of examination, must be performed with the requisite certificate as specified in Appendix G. The meaning of the term “certificate” as used in the Rules is given in rule I. The Officer’s service performed by a candidate who has been duly promoted during the course of a voyage (see rule 43) or who, as a result of services in vessels plying between ports abroad, has been unable to obtain the necessary certificates, may, however, be recognised, provided that it is satisfactory in other respects.
  2. Promotion during voyage.– Whenever a man has, from any cause in the course of a voyage, been regularly promoted from the rank in which he first shipped on the occurrence of a vacancy and such promotion, on the ground on which it has been properly entered in the articles and the Official Log Book, he will receive credit for his service in the higher grade for the period subsequent to his promotion.
  3. Mixed service.– Where a candidate has performed his sea service in more than one capacity, or partly in the foreign trade and partly in the home trade, proportionate allowances will be made for each kind of service, provided that in other respects such service complies with the requirements of the Rules.
  4. Evidence as to service in foreign vessels.– The testimonials of service of aliens and of British and Indian Officers and seamen serving in foreign vessels, which cannot be verified by the Director General of Shipping must be confirmed either by the Consul or some other recognised official authority of the foreign country, or by the testimony of some credible person having personal knowledge of the facts required to be established. The production, however, of such proofs will not of necessity be deemed sufficient. Each case will be decided on its own merits,
  5. Service as carpenter, sail-maker, cook steward, etc.– Candidates whose service has been performed in capacities other than apprentice, midshipman, cadet, ordinary seaman or able seamanf e.g, men who have served as carpenter, or sail-maker, or as cook in small vessels where cooking is only a part of man’s duty-must satisfy the Examiner that they have, during the whole time claimed, performed deck duties in addition to their own particular work. These facts may possibly be established by the production of satisfactory certificates from the Masters with whom the candidate has served. Such service will only be accepted as equivalent to two-thirds of the time served as ordinary deck hand. In the absence of satisfactory evidence, the applicant will be required to perform additional service in the capacity of a seaman. Service as cook (under conditions other than the above), or as steward, or purser, or in the engine room, will not be accepted.
  6. Service as radio officer.– If a candidate has been engaged on articles as a deck rating, and has served both as a deck rating and as a Radio Officer, two-thirds of such service may be counted as qualifying service. The candidate must, however, prove that during the whole period claimed, he performed deck duties in addition to the duties of a Radio Officer.

If a candidate has been engaged on articles as a Radio Officer, and has performed deck duties in addition, two-thirds of such service may be counted as qualifying service provided that the candidate can produce a certificate from the Master, to the effect that he has performed deck duties throughout the voyage for reasonable proportion of time each day and that he has not spent more than two hours a day on regular wireless watch.

If a candidate has been engaged on articles as a Radio Officer, and has only served as such, one quarter of the service may be counted as qualifying service, up to a maximum of 12 months’ qualifying service,

  1. Apprentices and cadets.– Apprentices and cadets, whether bound by indentures or not, shall be accepted for examination for a Certificate of four years, reduced by any remissions granted under rules 51, 52 and 53 service on board a ship for not less than three-fourths of the nominal period of four years, reduced by any remissions granted under rules 51, 52, and 53 provided that a letter from the Master or Owner is produced stating that during their period on board the ship they had rendered satisfactory service. In no case shall a candidate be admitted to the examination until he has completed a minimum period of 24 months on board a ship.

The minimum period of 24 months is arrived at after making due allowance for the maximum of 12 months’ remission in sea service that is permissible for pre-sea training.

Where a candidate having completed the nominal period aforesaid is short of the necessary service on board the ship, he will be required to show such additional sea service, either as a seaman or a junior officer, so as to make up the deficiency.

The general concession set out above cannot, however, be taken to cover the cases in which, during a large part of the period of service, the vessel on which the candidate has served, has been laid up in a port. The proportion of the period of service which can be accepted as qualifying service in such a case depends on the individual circumstances and each case will be considered on its merits. The examiners will make as generous an allowance for such service as they properly can, but they cannot forego the essential condition that candidates for Certificate of Competency must have sufficient experience of actual service at sea.

A candidate who has completed his qualifying service but has not attained the age of twenty years may sit for the examination if he has completed the age of nineteen years and six months. If he qualifies in the examination, the certificate will not be issued until he attains the age of twenty years.

  1. [Omitted.]
  2. Promotion during apprentice or cadet service.– Where and apprentice, cadet or midshipman, whether bound by indetures or not, it promoted to uncertificated junior officer in the same company, for the last year of apprenticeship or cadet-ship, such officer’s service will be treated, for the purposes of assessing sea service, as cadet or apprentice service.
  3. Training ships.– Any candidate who produces a certificate from the Captain. Superintendent or other apprropriate authority of any approved training ship, testifying to his good conduct and proficiency, shall be eligible for counting towards sea service the time spent on board the training ship up to the following extent, namely;
(a) In the case of a candidate who has completed training course on board the ship “T. S. Rejendra”, after having been admitted thereto in the year 1975 or thereafter only Full time spent on board training ship. subject to a maximum of 12 months:
(b) In the case of any other Half time spent on board the training ship, subject to a maximum of 12 months.
  1. Shore schools for nautical training.– Time spent after the age of 14 at a school for Nautical Training conducted on premises ashore may be allowed to count in some proportion as service at sea provided that :

(a) the school is recognised under the appropriate Rules;

(b) after an inspection by one of their officers, the Central Government is satisfied that the school gives a training that justifies time spent there being reckoned as part of the necessary qualifying time for a certificate of competency; and

(c) the candidate produces a satisfactory certificate as regards, conduct and proficiency from the authorities of the school on leaving it.

The schools to which these arrangements may apply are of three kinds :

(i) schools at which a boy resides and receives training for a period of years; or courses of not less than one academic year, in navigation and seamanship, after the age of 16 at nautical residential training colleges. The maximum remission of sea service that will be allowed in respect of attendance at such a school will be fixed at the time of approval; it will never exceed twelve months.

(ii) courses in navigation and seamanship at junior Technical Schools are similar non-residential institutions, which books attend before going to sea; the maximum remission of sea service in these cases will be fixed at the time of approval; it will never exceed six months.

(iii) senior course in Navigation at Technical or other similar non-residential schools, which candidates attend after completing the whole or a larger part of the nominal period of service required to qualify for examination for a Second Mate’s Certificate or for a Mate’s (Home Trade) Certificate; the maximum remission of sea service in the these cases will be fixed at the time of approval; it will never exceed three months.

In the case of schools of classes (i) and (ii), the certificate must show whether or not he has completed the course.

In the case of schools of classes (ii) and (iii), the certificates which the candidate produces [paragraph (c) above] must in addition testify to the candidate’s continuous and regular attendance at all the approved classes, and also, in the case of schools of class (iii), must state the total number of hours during which he has attended at the school.

A candidate who, at different times, has attended two or more approved schools or Nautical Training will be allowed a remission of sea service in respect of attendance at each of them subject to the condition that the total remission of sea service, in respect of attendance at approved schools and training ships will never exceed 12 months.

Time spent at approved schools will not be accepted in lieu of any part of the officer’s service required to qualify a candidate for examination for a certificate as First Mate or Master; nor in lieu of sea service required in consequence of failure in the oral examination (see rule 66).

A list of approved schools of nautical training is given in Appendix I.

  1. Service in Naval training colleges.– Time spent by Naval Cadets at the National Defence Academy, Khadakvasla or at the Naval College at Dartmouth or the Royal Australian Naval College will subject to the conditions laid down in rule 52, be permitted to count as equivalent to one-half of the same time spent in service at sea, and a similar allowance will be made in respect of time on courses on shore after promotion to Acting Sub-Lieutenant, subject to the conditiofthat the total remission of sea service in respect of all time spent on shore shall not exceed twelve months. Time spent in shore training will not be accepted in lieu of watch-keeping service.
  2. Service in the Indian Naval Reserve.– (1) Sea-going and shore-based service of officers of the Indian Naval Reserve with the Indian Navy will be accepted as qualifying watch-keeping service for Certificates of Competency as follows, subject to a maximum allowance of six months for each grade of certificate:

(i) The time spent by Midshipmen on board sea-going vessels or the Indian Navy will, if accompanied by a good report, be accepted in full for the second Mate’s Foreign-going or Mate’s Home Trade Certificates provided that a reasonable proportion of such time has been spent at sea, and that not `more than four weeks have been spent on leave.

(ii) The time spent by officers (other than Midshipmen) up to and including the rank of Lieutenant when undergoing training with the Indian Navy will, subject to a good report, be accepted in full if sea-going service, or at half rate if shore-based service for the Master’s or First Mate’s Foreign-going or Master’s Home Trade Certificate.

(iii) Service of officers appointed for temporary duty in the Fleet in lieu of Indian Navy officers, or of officers serving in the Fleet on mobilization, or in a special emergency, will be accepted in full if sea-going, or at half-rate if shore based for the Master’s or First Mate’s Foreign-going or Master’s Home Trade Certificate.

Doubtful cases are to be referred to the Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates for decision.

(2) Where a balance of Indian Naval Reserve service under Cl. (ii) or Cl. (iii) above remains after the requisite amount has been counted towards the qualifying period of sea service for admission to the First Mate’s examination, candidates may apply to count this balance for the purposes of Master’s examination, subject to the total allowance for each grade or certificate not exceeding six months. Such applications are to be forwarded together with the relevant papers to the Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates for decision.

  1. Service in the Indian Air Force.– Officers with certificates as Second Mate or first Mate who hold Short Service Commissions in the Indian Air Force will, if accompanied by a good report. be allowed to count towards qualifying sea service for certificates of competency as first Mate or Master respectively, half the time spent under instruction in aviation at a flying training school or with a home defence unit, and half the time spent in a fleet air arm or naval co-operation unit up to a maximum of six months in all for each grade of certificate.

Apprentices and seamen holding Short Service Commissions in the Indian Air Force will, if accompanied by a good report, be allowed to count towards qualifying sea service for a Second Mate’s certificate or a Mate’s Home Trade certificate half the time spent under instruction in aviation at a flying training school or with a home defence unit and half the time spent in a fleet air arm or naval co-operation unit up to maximum or six months in all, provided that the total remission or sea service in respect or I.A.F. service and time spent in shore training, ship or school shall not in any event exceed twelve months.

  1. Excursion steamers.-In the case of excursion steamers, only such service as can be proved to have been performed at sea will be accepted.
  2. Service in fishing or pilot vessels.– Subject to sub-rule (c) of this rule service performed exclusively in trawlers and other deep sea-fishing vessels, or in pilot vessels. will count at two-thirds rate towards qualifying for a certificate of competency as Second Mate, but will count in full for home trade certificates of competency. In addition to such service in trawlers or in pilot vessels, a candidate must prove the following service

(a) For a foreign-going certificate, service for at least 18 months in an ordinary trading vessel in the foreign trade, or the equivalent period (27 months), in the home or coasting trade.

(b) For a home certificate, service for a least twelve months in an ordinary trading vessel in the foreign, home or coasting trade.

(c) All claims of candidates for service performed in fishing or pilot vessels are to be forwarded to the Chief Examiner for scrutiny and his decision in the matter will be final.

  1. Service in yachts.– Service in pleasure yachts will be accepted as qualifying service under the following conditions:

(a) It must always be verified by satisfactory proofs, which must set out clearly and in detail the nature and duration of the service claimed. (It must be clearly understood that only actual sea service will be accepted, and that service in harbour or port is inadmissible.)

(b) Service in foreign-going yachts will be accepted in full, service performed within home trade limits in sailing yachts of not less than 50 tons net register or in steam yachts of not less than 80 tons gross register will be accepted in the proportion stated in rule 38, but candidates must also show: (1) For a foreign – going certificate service for a least 18 months in an ordinary trading vessel in the foreign trade, or for the equivalent period, 27 months, in an ordinary trading vessel in the home or coasting trade. (2) For a home trade certificate, service for at least 12 months in an ordinary trading vessel in the foreign, home or coasting trade.

(c) Service within home trade limits in sailing yachts of not less than 20 tons net register, or in steam yachts of not less than 40 tons gross register, will be accepted towards qualifying a candidate for a foreign-going certificate as equivalent to half the same time served in the foreign trade, but no amount of such service shall count as more than two years service in the foreign trade, and no such service shall count as officer’s service to qualify candidates for foreign-going certificates.

(d) Service within home trade limits in sailing yachts of not less than 20 tons net register, or in steam yachts of not less than 40 tons cross register, will be accepted at the ordinary rate as qualifying service for home trade certificates, but candidates must prove that they have in addition served for at least 12 months in an ordinary trading vessel in the foreign, home or coasting trade, for each grade of certificate.

(e) Service within home trade limits in sailing yachts of less than 20 tons net register, or in steam yachts of less than 40 tons gross register, will not be accepted as qualifying service for any class of certificate.

  1. Service in tugs, defence department vessels, etc.– Service performed in tugs employed outside partially smooth water limits will be accepted as sea service for the purpose of qualifying a candidate for a Mate’s or Master’s certificate for home trade ships only.

Service performed in foreign-going tugs will be accepted in full (subject to the provisions of rule 39) for the purpose of qualifying a candidate for a foreign-going certificate, on the following condittions.

(a) That, of the qualifying service for a Second Mate’s certificate at least one year must have been served in ordinary trading ships in the foreign-going trade or its home trade equivalent:

(b) That, of the qualifying service performed between the Second Mate’s and Master’s examinations, at least one year must have been served in a qualifying capacity in an ordinary trading vessel in the foreign-going trade or its home trade equivalent, of which the equivalent of six month’s foreign-going service must have been performed before qualifying for examination as First Mate.

Service performed in Defence Department vessels employed outside partially smooth water limits (see rule 61) will be accepted as sea service to qualify a candidate for a Mate’s Master’s certificate, for home trade ships only. This service will not be accepted towards qualifying candidate for a foreign-going certificate other than in exceptional Circumstances, when the case, together with all the candidate’s papers, will be forwarded to the Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates for consideration and his decision in the matter will be final.

  1. Service in dredgers.– Service in steam hopper barges will, subject to the provisions of rule 61, be allowed to count towards qualifying a candidate for a Mate’s certificate of competency for home trade ships, provided that the candidate can prove at least two year’s service in an ordinary trading vessel in either the home, coasting or foreign trade. Services in steam hoppers will not be accepted as officer’s service towards qualifying a candidate for a Master’s certificate.
  2. Service on rivers.– Service performed on rivers, no matter of what size, and service performed entirely within smooth or partially smooth water limits will not be accepted.

In doubtful cases, the candidate must, before the acceptance of the service can be considered, produce a certificate from the Master or Owner of the vessel in which the service was performed.

  1. Service in cable ships or fleet auxiliaries.– A candidate part of whose qualifying service has been performed in cable ships or Fleet Auxiliaries ( other than freighting tankers), will be required to produce, in addition to the usual evidence of sea service, a statement or certificate from the owners of the ship showing the amount of time actually spent at sea. If the time so spent constitutes or exceeds two-thirds of the total time on articles, this total time will be accepted in full as qualifying service, but in the event of the actual sea service failing below this proportion, the deficiency must be made up by additional service at sea before the total time on articles can be accepted in full as qualifying service.
  2. Lighthouse tenders, etc.– Service performed in the sea-going Lighthouse Tenders and Fishery Cruisers, will be accepted as sea service for the purpose of qualifying a candidate for examination for a home trade certificate. For a foreign-going certificate, however, a candidate must show in addition to this service calculated in accordance with rule 37 at least twelve months in an ordinary trading vessel for each grade of certificate.
  3. Service in lightships.– Service in lightships will not be accepted as sea service.

CHAPTER V

Success And Failure In The Examination

  1. The marking of the whole of the written portion of the examination, with the exception of the papers on chart work, will be carried out by the Central Board of Examiners consisting of the Chief Examiner, the Nautical Survey or on the Nautical Advisor’s staff and an additional Nautical Surveyor if required.

For his written work, the candidate will be furnished with sheets of blank ruled paper on which he will be required to answer in a clear and legible hand the questions on the paper and to start each answer by writing in the margin the number of the question to which it relates.

To pass in the written portion of examination in respect of the subjects specified in the Table below, a candidate shall have to obtain the percentage of marks indicated against each subject in column (3) of the Table and also to obtain an aggregate of 60 per cent of the total marks. The time, total marks allotted to and the percentage of marks required to be obtained for a pass in each paper of the written examination for each grade of certificate shall be as follows:

(a) Second Mate (Foreign-going)
Time Hours Marks %Pass
First Day
(1) (2) (3)
1. General ship Knowledge 3 hrs. 200 50
2. Chart work 2 hrs. 150 70
Second Day
3. Practical navigation and Principles of navigation 3 hrs. 200 70
4. Meteorology 2 hrs. 100 50
Third Day
5. General physics 3 hrs. 200 50
6. Mathematics 2 hrs. 150 50
1,000 60
Aggregate

Fourth or Subsequent days

Signals and Orals

Note:- Candidates who have successfully completed a course of training in T.S. “Rajendra” and have obtained the final Passing out Certificate as from the year 1974 onwards and who have secured not less than 50 per cent marks in each of the subjects of General Physics and Mathematics in the final passing out examination, will be granted exemption from appearing in those subjects.

(b) First Mate (Foreign-going)
First Day (1) (2) (3)
1. Navigation and chart work 3 hrs. 200 70
2. Radio and Electronics 2 hrs. 150 50
Second Day
3. Ship construction and stability 3 hrs. 200 50
4. Electricity. 2 hrs. 150 50
Third Day
5. Safety, carriage of goods and ship maintenance. 3 hrs. 200 50
6. Meteorology, Ocean currents and routing 2 hrs. 100 50
1,000 60
Aggregate
Fourth or subsequent days
Signals and Orals
(c) Master (Foreign-going)
First Day (1) (2) (3)
1. Ship construction and stability 3 hrs. 200 60
2. Commercial knowledge and ship’s business 2hrs. 200 50
Second Day
3. Radio and Navigational aids 3 hrs 200 60
4. Engineering knowledge instruments and control systems 2 hrs. 200 50
Third Day
5. Magnetism, magnetic and gyro compasses 3 hrs. 100 50
6. Meteorology, Ocean Currents and routing 2 hrs. 100 50
1,000 60
Aggregate
Fourth or subsequent days
Signals and Orals
(d) Mate ( Home-trade)
First Day (1) (2) (3)
1. Practical Navigation 3 hrs. 150 70
2. 2. General Ship Knowledge 2 hrs. 150 50
Second Day
3. Chart work and Pilotage 2 hrs. 150 70
4. Meteorology 1 1/2 hrs. 100 50
550 60
Aggregate
Fourth or subsequent days
Signals and Orals
(e) Master (Home-Trade)
First Day (1) (2) (3)
1. Practical Navigation Ship Construction and Stability 3 hrs. 200 70
2 hrs. 150 50
Second Day
3. Chart work and Pilotage 2 hrs. 150 70
4. Elementary Magnetism and Compass 1 1/2 hrs. 1 00 50
Third Day
5. Meteorology 1 1/2; hrs. 100 50
750 60
Aggregate
Fourth or subsequent days
Signals and Orals
  1. Partial passes.– A pass in either the written, oral or signals part of the examinations will remain valid for a period of six months, and if the candidate secures a pass in all parts during this period he will be awarded a certificate of competency. If more than six months have elapsed since the candidate passed any portion of the examination he will be required to take that portion again, although the Director General of Shipping may, in special circumstances, extend this period to one year

Candidates failing in the oral portion of an examination for a certificate of competency through serious weakness in practical knowledge may, at the Examiner’s discretion, be required to perform further sea service before being re-examined. Such sea service will not exceed six months and may be performed in any capacity on deck in any sea-going ship In the case of a second failure or any subsequent failure in the written or oral portions, or both, of the examination for a certificate of competency two months must elapse from the date of the last failure before the candidate can be re-examined

  1. Non-attendance at oral examination.– Candidates for any grade of certificate should proceed to the oral examination whether or not they have passed in the written portion. A candidate who does not proceed to the oral examination at the time appointed will be regarded as having failed in the oral examination and also in the written examination unless he produces a medical certificate or other satisfactory evidence that he was unable to attend the oral examination
  2. Examination in signalling.– A candidate who is eligible by sea service for examination for any grade of certificate in which signalling is required may take this part of Examination during any week in which examinations for Masters and Mates are held within the six months immediately before or after he presents himself for examination in the written and oral portions. If the signal portion is taken separately the special fee (see rule 93) must be paid for each attempt
  3. Mutual acceptance of passes.– A partial pass in an examination for a foreign-going certificate obtained in the United Kingdom holds good for the purpose of the corresponding examination for a Commonwealth or Colonial certificate of Imperial validity (see Appendix J); and similarly partial passes in such Commonwealth or (Colonial examinations hold good for the purpose of the corresponding examination in the United Kingdom
  4. Corrections by Fables.– In the Principles of Navigation paper tor Second Mate (foreign-going) the correction of altitudes by total correction tables will not be allowed. Every correction must appear on the papers of the candidate.
  5. Candidate’s may use own method.– Candidates will be allowed to work out the various problems according to any method which they have been accustomed to use, provided that such method is correct in principle
  6. Degree of precision required.– When making calculations for obtaining a ship’s position, candidates are expected to work 0.2 of a minute of arc and to the nearest second of time.

The method of calculation used in obtaining a position line should be capable of giving an answer within 0.5 of a mile

In calculation of compass errors, bearings and courses, the answer should be worked out to within 0-25 of a degree, but in chart work 0.5 of degree is sufficient.

In calculating the correction to apply to soundings, it will be sufficient if the candidate’s answer is within half a foot of a precise result.

  1. Compass deviation.– In answering questions on the tentative method of compass adjustment, the candidate may be tested by Beall’s Compass Deviascope.
  2. Sextant.– Particular attention will be paid to the sextant, the examination in which (for all grades) will be conducted orally and practically. Every candidate will be required to measure both vertical and horizontal angles, and, will be examined practically as to his knowledge of the adjustments and the use of the various screws. He must be able to read correctly on and off the arc, and to find the index error both by the horizon and by the sun.
  3. Rule of the road.– In the examination on Rule of the Road, the Examiner will test the candidate’s knowledge of the sense and intention of the Rules of the Collision Regulations. Mere ability to repeat the Rules word for word will not suffice to ensure the candidate’s passing, nor will the lack of it necessarily entail failure, provided that the Examiner is satisfied that the candidate grasps the full significance, content, and practical application of the Rules. Examiners will not ask for the content of the Rules by their numbers but by the subject with which they deal and they will discourage the use by candidates of verses as aids to memorising the Rules. Examiners will not place a candidate for a stamp ship certificate in the position of handling a sailing ship, but will lay stress on the candidate’s ability to recognise a sailing ship’s lights and on his knowledge of a sailing ship’s possible manoeuvres according to the direction of the wind.
  4. No candidate to be examined in successive weeks.– A candidate will not be allowed to undergo examination for the same grade of certificate twice in successive weeks, unless, under very special and urgent circumstances, the Examiner should see fit to relax this rule.

CHAPTER VI

Rules Concerning The Conduct Of The Examinations

  1. The examinations will begin each day at a time appointed by the Examiner.A luncheon interval will be given each day generally between 1 P.M. and 2 P.M. As far as possible, candidates will be given ample notice of the day and time of their oral examination
  2. Punctuality.– Candidates must appear punctually at the examination room at the time appointed.
  3. No. strangers aamitted.-No person (other than those whose duties require them to be present) w;’.I be allowed in the room during the examination.

Instructors will not be allowed on the premises.

  1. Loose papers and books.– Before the examination begins, the tables or desks will be cleared of all scraps of paper and books (other than those permitted in the examination room).
  2. Use of books and tables.– The following tables and books will be supplied by the Central Government at the examination rooms

Nautical Tables (including logarithm tables).- Norie (full edition).

Alt-Azimuth Tables.-Burdwood, Davis.

Admiralty Tide Tables.-European Waters. Pacific Ocean and adjacent Seas. Atlantic and Indian Ocean.

Surveyor General of India, Tide Tables.- Indian Ocean.

Nautical Almanac.-1952 Abridged Edition.

Candidates who wish to use other tables than the above may bring such tables into the examination room, on condition that they submit them to the Examiner for scrutiny and approval before the examination begins. These tables must not contain any manuscript notes. Subject to the examiner’s approval, no restriction will be placed on the use of any tables, but candidates must understand the theory on which the tables are based, and such tables must be capable of giving an answer within the required limits of accuracy (see rule 72.) When tables other than those supplied by the Central Government are used in answering a question, the name of the tables and a note of what is actually obtained from them should be stated on the candidate’s paper.

  1. Use of instruments.-All instruments necessary for use in the examinations are supplied by the Central Government but candidates will be allowed to use their own drawing instruments and slide rules provided that the Examiner’s approval is obtained before the examination begins. If a slide rule is used, a note to this effect should be entered on the candidate’s answer paper.
  2. Unauthorised book and papers strictly forbidden.– Candidates are forbidden to bring books or papers of any kind whatever, other than nautical tables, Into the examination room. If this rule is infringed, the offender will be regarded as having failed and he will not be allowed to present himself for re-examination for a period of three months.

A candidate who uses his own nautical tables or instruments without first obtaining the permission of the Examiner will be treated similarly.

  1. Injury to books, instruments, etc.– If a candidate defaces, blots, writes in, or otherwise injures any book or form or damages any instrument belonging to the Central Government, his papers will be retained until he has replaced the damaged book, document, or instrument. He will not be allowed to remove the damaged book or document or instrument, ant may be regarded as having failed.
  2. Leaving room or building.– No candidate may leave the examination room without permission and without giving up the paper on which he is engaged. Under no circumstances will a candidate be allowed to leave the building while the examination is proceeding. A candidate who breaks this rule will be regarded as having failed in the examination.
  3. Silence.– Silence must be kept in the examination room.
  4. All work to be shown.– No candidate will be allowed to work out his problems on waste paper, or to write on the blotting paper supplied for his use in the examination. A candidate who breaks this rule will be regarded as having failed in the examination.

‘A sheet of blotting paper will be issued to each candidate with the first examination paper, and it must be returned each day to the Examiner when the last paper is completed. The Examiner will be careful to see that the blotting paper has not been. used by the candidate in solving his problems, or for conveying information to other candidates.

  1. Penalty for copying, etc.– In the event of any candidate being discovered referring to any unauthorised book or paper, or copying from another, or affording any assistance or giving any information to another, or ‘communication in any way with another during the time of examination, or copying any part of the problems for the purpose of taking them out of the examination rooms, he will be regarded as having failed, and will not be allowed to present himself for re-examination for a period of six months.

A candidate guilty of a second offence of this kind will not be allowed to present himself for re-examination until 12 months have elapsed.

  1. Punishment for misconduct.– Where in the opinion of the Director General of Shipping a candidate has been guilty of any misconduct in relation to an examination (including insolence to any Examiner or disorderly or improper conduct in or about the room where the examination is held) or a breach of any of these rules, the candidate may be punished in one or more of the following ways

(a) where the examination has not commenced or is not completed, the candidate may not be permitted to appear in the examination or, as the case may be, to take further part therein;

(b) where the result of the examination has been declared, the result of the candidate may be amended;

(c) where the candidate has been declared successful in the examination but has not been granted the necessary certificate, the certificate may be withheld for such period as the Central Government any direct ; and

(d) the candidate may be debarred from appearing in any examination under these rules for such period as the Central Government may direct.

CHAPTER VII

Fees

  1. Fess always paid first.– Candidates for examination and persons enquiring as to the eligibility will be required in making their application on Form Exn. 2 (India), to pay the examination fee before any step is taken in the way of enquiring into their services or testing their qualifications. If the candidate is found not to be eligible the fee will either be returned to him or placed to his credit until he is eligible.
  2. Where to pay fees.– The fee for examination must be paid to the Principal Officer.
  3. Fee in case of failure.– The fee paid for examination for a certificate of competency includes the fee of rupees four for examination in the sight tests, and if a candidate fails to pass those tests, this fee will, with the exception of rupees four, be returned to him.

If a candidate fails to pass any other part of the examination no part of the fee will be returned to him.

  1. Fees.– (1) The fees for examinations for certificates of competency for each of the following grades, shall be as specified hereunder, namely:
Grade of Certificate Fees
(i) Master of a Foreign-going ship Rs. 90.00
(ii) First Mate of a Foreign-going ship Rs. 60.00
(iii) Second Mate of a Foreign-going ship Rs. 30.00
(iv) Master of a Home-trade ship Rs. 30.00
(v) Mate of a Home-trade ship Rs. 20.00

(2) Where any candidate for a certificate of competency of any grade appears either for written or oral part of the examination, fees payable by him shall be half of the fees specified for the examination for the respective grade of the certificate of competency.

93-A. Examination in signalling. – (1) Where a candidate appears for examination in signalling together with written and oral parts of the examination for the respective grade of certificate of competency, the examination fees payable under sub-rule (1) of rule 93 shall also include fees for the examination in signalling.

(2) Where any such candidate appears for examination in signalling separately, a fee of rupees twenty only shall be payable for such examination.

93-B. Examination in sight test. – (1) Where a candidate appears for examination in sight test together with written and oral parts of the examination for the respective grade of certificate of competency, the examination fees payable under sub-rule (1) of rule 93 shall also include fees for the examination in sight test.

(2) Where any such candidate appears for examination in sight test separately, a fee of rupees four only shall be payable for such examination.

(3) Where a candidate holds a valid sight test certificate on his first attempt for examination for certificate of competency of any grade, credit shall be given for the fees for sight test only and examination fee payable by him for that attempt be reduced accordingly.

93-C. Voluntary examination in compass deviation. – A fee of rupees sixty only shall be payable for a voluntary examination in Compass Deviation.

CHAPTER VIII

Syllabuses

  1. General.– The following rules deal with the syllabuses of examination for the various grades of certificates.

In each paper throughout the syllabus, questions may be set combing one or more paragraphs.

The syllabus for a higher grade in both written and orals is always to be regarded as including the syllabus of that subject (if any) for certificates of lower grades.

The Examiner may ask the candidate question arising out of the written work, if he deems it necessary on account of weakness shown by the candidates.

Although the purpose of examinations held under these rules is not to examine candidates for proficiency in the English language, It is necessary that answer should be couched in correct English. Any mistake as to composition of sentences or accuracy of spelling may, therefore, cause loss of marks.

94-A. Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules, any candidate who has appeared for and failed in an examination for any grade of certificates held under these rules prior to 1st January, 1972, may, at his option, be eligible to appear for the held up to 31st July 1972, in written Part of such examination in accordance with the provisions of the rules as in force up to 31st December, 1971.

Second Mate (Foreign-Going)

  1. Candidates should demonstrate their understanding of their work by means of sketches drawn with reasonable accuracy.

Answers to problems in practical navigation should, where appropriate, be accompanied by a figure drawn reasonably to scale.

In the paper on practical navigation, total correction of altitudes by means of tables may be used. In the paper on “Principles of Navigation each correction must be shown separately.

The written paper in subject such as physics and mathematics are intended to test the candidates’ grasp of fundamentals of laws of physics and mathematics. Mathematical proofs of formulae are not required unless so specified in the syllabus.

  1. Paper 1.

General Ship Knowledge (3 hours)

(a) General ideas on ship-construction and on plans available on board ship). General definitions of main dimensions.

The names of the principal parts of a ship.

The candidate will be expected to show his practical acquaintance with-

Longitudinal and transverse framing, beams and beam knees, watertight bulkheads, hatchways and closing appliances, rudders, steering gear, shell and deck planting, double bottoms and peak tanks, bilges, side and wind tanks, stern frames, propellers and propeller shafts, stern tubes, sounding pipes, air pipes, general pumping arrangements.

The stiffening and strengthening to resist painting, pounding and longitudinal stresses, and cause and simple methods of prevention of corrosion in a ship’s structure.

(b) General ideas of welding, rivetting and burning and the precautions to be taken when such processes are carried out on board ship.

(c) The meaning of the terms-

block coefficient, displacement, deadweight, buoyancy, and reserve buoyancy.

Laws of floating body. Use of displacement and tonnes per centimetre immersion scales to determine weights of cargo or ballast from draughts or free-board.

Effect of density of water on draught and free-board.

Fresh water allowance.

(d) General understanding of definitions of :

Centre of gravity, Centre of buoyancy, Metacentric height Righting lever, Righting moment.

The effect of adding and removing weights on ship’s centre of gravity, centre of buoyancy and metacentric height.

The danger of slack tanks.

Rigging a ship for loading and discharging cargo, the use of derricks, winches and cranes

`Lining up’ pipelines on oil products carriers

The stowage separation and dunnaging of cargoes including bulk cargoes. Causes of sweating and precautions to be taken before, during and after stowing to prevent damage by sweat.

Importance of dew point, air temperature and sea temperature in the practice of cargo ventilation.

A knowledge of the safety precautions to be taken during the loading and discharging of bulk oil, chemicals and other inflammable commodities.

Gas detection and methods of gas freeing large tanks.

Danger of explosions in tankers due to presence of gases.

Hazards arising from static electricity in tankers.

Calculations of capacities taken up by part cargoes aid the space remaining Conversion of weight measurement of cargo into space measurement and vice versa.

The making and use of cargo plans.

Ventilations systems of holds and tanks.

Precautions to be taken before entering cargo and ballast tank, and void spaces.

Elementary knowledge of carriage of dangerous goods. Outline knowledge of relevant parts of Indian Dock Labour Regulations.

(e) Safety.

The names and functions of the various parts of a ship’s lifeboat and liferaft.

Care and maintenance of all life-saving and fire fighting appliances, lifeboat and liferaft equipment, lights and sound signals.

  1. Paper 2 (written).

Chartwork (2 hours)

(a) Given variation and the deviation of the magnetic compass or gyro error, or convert true courses into compass courses and vice versa

Given a sample table of deviations to extract the deviations, thence to convert true courses into magnetic and compass courses.

To find the compass course between two positions.

The effect of current on speed.

Allowance for leeway.

Given compass course steered, the speed of the ship and direction and rate of the current to find the true course made good.

To find the course to steer allowing for current.

Given the course steered and distance run, to determine the set and rate of the current experienced between two positions.

(b) To fix a position of the ship on a chart by simultaneous cross bearings, bearing, and range, by positional information from radio aids to navigation or by any combination applying the necessary connections.

(c) To fix the position by bearings of one or more objects with the run between, allowing for a current and to find the distance at which the ship will pass a given point.

The use,of position lines and circles obtained by any method,

(d) The use of clearing marks and horizontal and vertical danger angles. Distance of sighting lights.

(e) To find the time and height of high and low water at Standard ports and at Secondary ports by tidal differences.

The use of tables and tide curves to find the time at which the tide reaches a specified height or the height of the tide at a given time and thence the approximate correction to be applied to soundings or to charted heights of shore objects.

(f) Candidates will be examined orally on the information given on a chart or plan particularly about:

buoys, light, radio beacons, navigational aids, depths and nature of bottom, use of soundings, depth and height contours, tidal streams, traffic lanes and separation zones and recognition of the coast and radar responsive targets.

(g) Candidates will be required :

(a) to demonstrate the ability to make intelligent use of sailing directions and

(b) to understand the use of Notices to mariners and to be familiar with process of chart.

(h) Candidates will be examined practically on the use of lattice charts, and gnomenic chart correction.

  1. Paper 3.

Practical Navigation and Principles of Navigation (3 hours),

(1) In this paper, candidates may be asked to draw a figure reasonable to scale and to state the projection used.

(2) Practical Navigation

(a) Practical problems on plans and Mercator Sailing.

(b) The use of the traverse tables to obtain the position of the ship at any time, given compass courses, variations, deviations and the run recorded by log or calculated by time and estimated speed, allowing for the effects of wind and current, if any.

(c) To find the latitude by meridian altitude of a heavenly body. Latitude by observation of Polaries.

(d) From an observation of any heavenly body near or out of the meridian, to find the direction of the position line and a position through which it passes.

(e) To obtain a position by the use of position lines obtained from any two observations with or without run.

(f) To find the true bearing of a heavenly body, the compass error thence the deviation of the magnetic compass for the direction of the ship’s head.

(g) To calculate the approximate time (to the nearest minute) of the meridian passage of a heavenly body; to calculate an approximate altitude for setting the ‘sextant to obtain the meridian altitude of a heavenly body.

(3) Principles of Navigation (a) The shape of the earth, Poles, equator, meridians. Parallels of latitude. Position by latitude and longitude. Direction, bearing, distance, units of measurement. Difference of latitude, difference of longitude, departure, mean and middle latitude, difference of meridianal parts and the relationship between them.

Great circles, great circle course and distance, small circle on a sphere.

(b) The celestial sphere; definitions of the celestial sphere, apparent motion on the celestial sphere, Declination. Azimuth, sidereal hour angle. The position of a body on the celestial sphere; azimuth with altitude or declinations with sidereal or local angle. The rising culmination and setting of heavenly bodies. Circumpolar stars. Maximum azimuth.

(c) Solar system, earth-moon system, Planetary motion, Earth’s rotation and movement in orbit, eclipses, mean sun, ecliptic, first point of Aries, Equinox and solistice Sunrise, Sunset, twilight.

(d) Time; Greenwich and other standard times, zone time, mean time, apparent time, sidereal time, equation of time, relationship between longitude and time International Date Line.

(e) Local hour angle of a heavenly body in time and in arc. Greenwich hour angle of Sun, Moon, Planets and Aries, Application of right angled and quadrantal spherical triangles.

(f) Correction of sextant altitudes including back altitudes; dip, refraction horizontal parallax in altitude, semi-diameter and augmentation. Use of artificial horizon.

(g) Geographical position of a heavenly body. A circle of position and its practical, i.e., position line. Intercept.

(h) Simple properties of mercator and ‘gnememic charts Latitude and longitude scales, measurement of distance. Rhumb lines. Merdianal parts.

  1. Paper 4.

Meteorology (2 hours).

(a) The principles of the barometer, mercurial and anoroid, Marine mercurial barometer, reduction of readings to standard datum.

Barograph.

(b) The principles of the thermometer, maximum and minimum up thermometers. Sea and air temperature observations and precautions to be taken.

The principle of the hygrometer, observations to obtain relative humidity, care and attention given to instruments.

(c) The Beaufort wind scale and weather notation in use at sea. Methods of estimating direction and force of wind at sea.

(d) A knowledge of the mean pressure distribution. Daily and seasonal changes in atmospheric pressure. Prevailing winds. Local and regional effects of heating and ceiling, land and sea breezes, monsoons. Anabatic and katabatic winds.

(e) The characteristics of, and weather associated with, the principal pressure systems, etc. anticyclones, depressions, permanent and semi-permanent high and low pressure areas, Relationship between pressure distribution and wind. Buy’s ballot’s law.

(f) Use of barometric observations at a single station in conjunction with weather signs.

(g) Water vapour in the atmosphere, evaporation, condensation, precipitation; meaning of saturation, relative humidity, dew point ; formation and classification of clouds, fog, mist and dew.

(h) A knowledge of the types of weather messages adopted by the World Meteorological Organization which are available to shipping. Coding of ship’s weather reports. Decoding of forecast and other weather information by use of Internationals anabasis code and Maritime forecast code.

(i) A knowledge of the general structure of weather reporting, e.g.. selected ships, weather ships, ship stations.

  1. Paper 5 (written).

General Physics (3 hours)

Simple calculations shall be based on fundamental relationship and the practical application of physical laws. Candidates will be expected to show an understanding and ppreciation of the physical principles involved rather than produce formal memorized escription or statements of laws or rules.

(a) Statics

(i) Composition and resolution of forces. Use of vector to indicate magnitude and direction. Vector addition, use of vector triangle. Principle of moments. Stress, strain, shear forces and bending moments of simply supported beams with and without load.

(ii) Centre of gravity; stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium.

(iii) Simple machines ; lever, screwjack, pulley systems; mechanical advantange, velocity radio and efficiency.

(iv) Pressure in liquids; pressure at a depth, thrust.

(v) Density; relative density. Principles of Archimedes and floatation; the marine hydrometer and its use.

(b) Dynamics

(i) Composition and resolution of velocities and accelerations. An understanding of Newton’s laws of motion, motion under gravity work, power, kinetic and potential energy. Momentum friction, and coefficient of fraction.

(c) Heat

(i) Meausrement of temperature; thermometers, thermocoupels. Transference of heat, conduction, convection and radiation.

(ii) Expansion of solids and liquids, coefficients of expansions; specific heat, latent heat.

(iii) Properties of gases; Boyle’s Law, charles’ Laws A simple treatment of isothermal and adiabatic expansion and compression of gases; principle of refrigeration.

(d) Light

(i) Laws of reflection; plane mirror, rotating mirror.

(ii) Laws of refraction; index of refraction, total internal reflection prisms, thin lenses; a graphical treatment of the formation of images by lenses.

(iii) Application of above laws to instruments in use at sea.

(e) Sound

(i) Wave motion; frequency, velocity, wave length and their relationship. Production and propagation of sound.

(ii) Effect of temperature and wind on the velocity of sound. Factors influencing the velocity of sound in gases and liquids.

(iii) Reflection, echoes. Simple treatment of Doppler effect.

(f) Magnetism

(i) Theory of magnetism. Laws of magnetism. Meaning of terms; intensity of magnetisation, susceptibility, tentivity, permeability.

(ii) Pole strength, field strength. Magnetic moment and couple, deflection of a magnetised needle. The period of a suspended magnet vibrating in the earth’s field. Magnetic induction of material in a magnetic field. Hystersi curves for ferro-magnetic material. Gaussin error, retentive error.

(iii) Torrestrial magnetssm and magnetic elements. Variation.

(g) Electricity

(i) The nature of an electric current, EMF, current resistance, their effects and relationship, electric potential. Units used in the measurement of electric potentials, currents and resistance. Simple calculations of electric current given potential and resistance. Insulators and insulation, electric and magnetic fields associated with electric potentials and currents. Capacitance.

(ii) Effects of an electric current :

(A) Heading effect; power and its relationship with current and resistance useful simple heating devices, unwanted heat in electric circuits and its effects need for dissipation of heat. The watt as a measure of power, the decibel as a measure of the ratio of powers.

(B) Magnetic effect; effect of the magnetic field on a magnetised field on a magnetised needle.

(C) Chemical effect (electrolysis); the effect of the passage of current through a conducting solution (electrolyte).

(iii) Functions, characteristics and use of measuring instruments to measure potential difference, current and resistance. Precautions to be observed when using measuring instruments, multiples and sub-multiples of units; micro, milli, kilo and mega and their symbpls p.m. K and M. The insulation tester and its use.

(iv) Primary cells and secondary cells and batteries in common use, their characteristics, care and precautions.

(v) Simple electric lighting circuits, alarm Circuits, indicator lamps and signalling lamps. Fuses and other circuit breaker devices used in electric circuits, their functions and operational effects. The effect open circuits, short circuits, short circuit and leakage on the action of simple electric circuits, effect of dirt and moisture or insulation.

(vi) Safety precautions to be observed when handling electrical circuits.

(vii) Static electricity, nature and its causes.

(h) Applied Chemistry

(i) Corrosion, action between dissimilar metals.

(ii) Combustion; induced and spontaneous; flash and ignition temperatures; explosive mixtures; chemical change due to over-heating Elementary knowledge of oxidising agents, corrosives, poisions and radio active agents.

(iii) Fire extinguishing; power foam, inert gases.

  1. Paper 6 (written).

Mathematics (2 hours)

(1) Algebra

(a) Elements of Set Theory-

Sets, subsets, empty sets, union and intersection of sets, complementation, Venn Diagrams.

(b) Number system

Natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, real numbers, complex numbers.

Surds: Rational operations with bionomical quadratic surds; conjugate surds and rationalising factors :

Theorem :If a + b = c + d then a = c and b = d under prescribed conditions.

Properties of real numbers with references to closure for elementary operations; commutativity, associativity, and distributivity without proof.

(c) Theory of Quadratic Equations with real coeffcients; Solution of quadratic equations; nature of roots. Relations between roots and coefficeints.

(d) Exponents and Logarithms :-

Definition of am for a 0, and m rational.

Theorems am x an = a mn abm = am bm

(am) = amn being rational number (Proof for positive integral exponents only).

Definition : if ax = N then ……………..log aN = x

Theorems on logarithms of products, quotient, power and change of base and its applications.

(e) Permutations and combinations:

Linear Permutations with distinct objects.

Combination (case of repetitions excluded).

(f) Graphical work, simple graph of statistics. calculations of constants and determination of law from graph. Graphical solution of equation.

(g) Arithmetical, Geometrical and Harmonical progression and the use of binomial theorem for positive, negative, and fractional real indices. Its application for approximations (without proof).

(2) Calculus

(a) Notion of fuction as correspondece, graph of a function.

(b) General idea of a limit, illustrating its use in the definition of speed tangent, and the circumference of a circle as the limit of the perimeter of inscribed regular polygon. Statment of fundamental rules of operationg with limits; Evaluation of simple limits, definition of a derivative.

(c) Derivative of x where n is a positive integer; Differentiation of : sum difference, product and quotient of funtions of polymials and rational functions;

Derivative with respect of x of u where u is a function of x; and (without proof) of xx where x is a real number.

(d) Applications of the derivative; Equations of tangent and normal in the case of simple curves : Maximum and Miniuma. Simple probelms on rates of change. Velocity, acceleration in rectilinear motion.

(e) Integration as a reverse process of differentiation. Standard forms. Method of subsititution.

(3) Geometry.

(a) Rectangular co-ordinate system. Point dividing a given segment (i) internally, and (ii) externally; equation and locus; change of origin; distance formula.

(b) Formulation of equations from geometrical data in simple cases; Circle : equation, condition that an equation of the second degree is a circle, Finding centre, and radius of a given circle; Parabola ellipse and hyperbola, their properties as applied to navignation.

(c) Straight line : Equations is forms y= mx+c, y-yl =m(x-xl), x/a+y/b = I, x cos d + y sin d = p, length of perpendicular from a point to a line; Angle between two St. lines.

(4) Trigonometry

(a) Definitions of a radian; Relation between radian and degrees (assuming that the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter is a constant); clockwise and anti-clockwise otations; positive and negative angles.

(b) Relationship between ratios. Haversine, Simple identities.

Definition of trigonometric (circular) functions of any angle; periodicity allied angle formulae (proofs only for o) and (TI/2-0) others to be duduced from these simple identities. Heights and distances. Graphs of sine, cosine, and tangent function.

(c) Compound angle formulae for two angles. Formula for cos (A+B) only to be proved: other to be duducted from this. Factorization formulae for sin A + sin B, and cos A + Cos B.

(d) Since-rule, cosine-rule, and projection rule for a triangle; their use in simple problems including solution of triangle; area of a tringle in term of (i) two sides and included angle, (ii) three sides, (iii) one side and the functions of the adjacent side.

(e) Properties of spherical triangle, polar triangles and application of their properties. Solution of spherical triangle by haversine formulae, sin formulae and Napean’s rules for rt. angled or quardrilateral triangle.

  1. Oral and practical.

(1) (a) To read and undedrstand a barometer, thermometer, hydrometer and hygrometer. The instruments supplied by the Meteorological Office will be taken as standard.

(b) To use an azimuth mirror, pelorus (bearing plate) or other instrument for taking bearings.

(c) To use a sextant for taking vertical and horizontal angles; to read a sextant both an and off the are.

(d) To correct a sextant into which has been introduced one or more error or perpendicularity, side or index.

(e) To find the index error of a sextant.

(f) Candidates will also be questioned on the care, winding, rating, and comparing of chornometers.

(2) The rigging of ships, methods of ascertaining the proof and safeworking loads of ropes including synthetic fibre and wire ropes. Rigging purchases and a knowledge of the power gained by their use. Knots, hitches and bends in common use. Seizings, rackings, rope and chain stoppers. Splicing plaited and multistrand manila and sunthetic fibre rope and wire rope with strict reference to current practice. Slinging a stage, rigging a bosun’s chair and pilot ladder.

(3) (a) Preparations for getting under way. Duties prior to proceeding to sea, making harbour; entering a dock. Berthing alongside quays, jetties, or other ships and securing to buoys with special reference to the after end of a ship.

(b) Helm orders. Comming the ship. Effects of propellers on the steering of a ship. Stopping, going astern, manoeuvring. Turning a steam-ship short round. Emergency manoeuvres. Bringing a ship to single anchor in an emergency. Man overboard.

(c) The duties of the officer of the watch at sea and at anchor. Dragging ai1chor. Duties of the deck officers in port.

(4) (a) Anchor and cables: their use and stowage.

(b) Knowledge of the use of all deck appliances including emergency steering gear.

(c) Marking and use of ordinary load line.

(d) Use and unkeep of mechanical logs and sounding appliances.

(e) The use and care of rocket and line throwing apparatus.

(5) (a) The use and care of life-saving appliances including handling characteristic, construction and stowage of liferafts. Emergency signal, abandon ship signal. Bending, setting and taking in lifeboat sails, management of boats under cars, sails, power and in heavy weather, recovering boats at sea. Beaching or landing. Survival procedure in lifeboats and liferafts.

(b) The use and care of fire appliances including the smoke helmet emergency fire pump and self-contained breathing apparatus. Action to be taken on discovering a fire-

(i) in port,

(ii) at sea.

(c) Use of the Merchant ship search and rescue manual (MERSAR).

(6) (a) A full knowledge of the content and application of the collision Regulations and the Annex to the rules. (Candidates will not be placed in a position of handling a sailing craft, but will not be placed in a position of handling sailing craft, but will be expected to recognise the lights carried by such craft and to have a knowledge of the possible manoeuvres according to the direction of the wind).

(b) Distress and pilot signals; penalties for misuse. International life saving signals.

(c) A knowledge of the contents of `Merchant shipping notices’ and `Notices to mariners’. The use of `Notices to mariners’.

(d) The uniform system of buoyage; wreck marking system.

(e) Precautions while using floating navigational aids, e.g. buoys, light vessels etc.

(7) The candidate will be asked questions on the practical use of electronic and other side to navigation e.g., gyro compass, auto pilot, course recorder, echo sounder and dacca navigator.

(8) The examiner may ask the candidate questions arising out of the written work, if it is deemed necessary on account of weakness shown by the candidate.

  1. Signals.
  2. To send and receive signals

(a) Semaphore up to eight words per minute.

(b) Morse-code by flash lamp up to six words per minute.

(c) International code of signals.

  1. (A) A knowledge of distress and safety communications procedures on radio-telephony as contained in the `International code of signals’, and the avoidance of unnecessary transmissions.

(B) Practical. – To prepare portable radio equipment for operation in lifeboat or liferaft, erect aerial and operate the radio-telephone facility.

(C) Practical use of shipborne Radio direction finder.

First Mate (Foreign-going)

  1. Paper 1 (written).

Navigation and Chartwork (3 hours)

(1) Practice and principles of navigation:

In addition to the syllabus for practical navigation and principles of navigation for second mate. Questions will be se on the following:

(a) To obtain the ship’s position by the combination of any two observations with or without run.

(b) Position fixing; fixed and variable errors, area of probability.

(c) The use and applications of radio aids to navigation; and operation, interpretation and appreciation of data.

(d) Application of systematic error corrections and variable error allowances.

(e) The use of radar data as an aid to collision avoidance including radar plotting.

(2) Chartwork:

In addition to the syllabus for second mate a candidate will be required to answer questions on:

(a) Construction and use of a line of sounding.

The use of a single position line in approaching the coast.

(b) Reliability of charts.

(c) Selection of suitable points for bearing or for fixing ship’s position by means of horizontal angles.

(d) Approaching an anchorage and navigating in narrow waters.

(e) Making landfall or proceeding along a coast in thick and clear weather.

(f) To answer any questions on above which the examiner deems necessary;

  1. Paper 2 (written).

Radio and Electronics (2 hours)

This syllabus covering radio and electronics, is confined to these topics of which a knowledge is essential in making progress towards an understanding of the principles and operation of these types of radio aids to navigation, radio telephone and other electronic equipment which is commonly used on merchant ships.

(a) (i) Elementary oscillatory circuits, maintenance of oscillations in a parallel LC circuit, relationship between frequency and values of L and C.

(ii) Thermionic valves and semi-conductor devices; diodes, triodes, and transistors, their functions and characteristics, effects of potentials between electrodes. Descriptions of the actions of valves and semi-conductors in simple basic circuits; rectifiers, amplifiers and oscillators.

(iii) Piezo-electric and the use of crystals to control the fiequency of oscillators.

(b) (i) Effects to current flow in an open conductor, electro-magnetic fields and the simple aerial, radiation of em waves. Velocity, frequency and wavelength and their relationship. The simple oscillator coupled to an aerial, basic transmitter, radiated frequency, tuning. Descriptive explanations of transmission, propagation in free space and in troposphere. Ground waves and sky waves. The ionosphere and its effects on radio waves. Effects of em waves impinging on objects, induced currents and re-radiation.

(ii) Descriptive treatment of the transmission of information by modulated carrier wave, carrier frequency and frequencies of side bands meaning of single side band (ssb).

(iii) Description of ship’s radio telephone transmitting system with the aid of block schematic diagrams showing the units which make up a typical system, for example, master oscillator, amplifier, modulator, microphone, power amplifier and aerial; the functions of each stage.

(c) (i) The principles of super-heterodyne reception, its advantages and disadvantages, block schematic diagram of superheteroduyne receiver with the functions of stages.

Description of full straight receiver with the aid of block schematic diagram.

The radio-telephone alarm signal generator, its characteristics and functions.

(ii) Directional reception, descriptive explanation of single rotating loop aerial, its receiving characteristics and associated polar diagram. Use of zero signal for directional indication, ambiguity in directional indications, sense, sense aerial, the effects of addition of signals from loop and vertical aerials. The heart shaped polar diagram as an indication or resolution of directional ambiguity. Fixed crossed loops aerial and goniometer for directional indication.

(iii) Elementary description of Yagi aerials, the relationship between size of elements and frequency, directional characteristics. The functions and characteristics of aerials used at centimetre wavelengths.

Directional transmission and reception at metre and centimetre wavelengths; propagation at these wavelengths, horizon range and anomalies of propagation.

(iv) Descriptive explanation of the functions, action and characteristics of cathode ray tubes used in amrine radio aids to navigation and television displays. The functions and characteristics of the following types of circuits used with cathode ray tube display : time base circuits, brightening and blackout circuits, calibration circuits and other functional circuits. The characteristics of functional circuits used in radio aids to navigation equipment.

(d) Descriptive explanation of methods of graphically displaying information; pen recorders, the advantages of wet and dry recording paper, preservation of records scales of display.

Direct reading scales and phasing of scales.

Descriptive explanation of visual indicators for displaying information; types used in ship borne installations, their advantages and disadvantages.

Transducers; magneto-striction for transmission and reception and reception of sound through water, their type, functions and characteristics.

Temperature sensing transducers and their use in simple circuits.

  1. Paper 3 (written).

Ship construction and stability (3 hours)

(a) A general knowledge of the principal strucrtural members of a ship. The proper names of the various parts. Midship sections of single deck and tween deck ship and bulk carriers, including container ships but excluding specialized products carriers. Functions, construction and stiffening of watertight bulkheads, including collision bulkhead. Stern frame, sterm tube and adjacent structure. Rudders; methods of construction and support. Hawse-pipes and how secured. Construction, stiffening and closing arrangements of hatchways and supersturctures. Bilge and ballast line systems.

(b) Rivet work, testing a line of rivets. General ideas on welding processes in construction and repair work, type of weld, common faults, visual examination of welded work. Testing of tanks and other water-tight work.

(c) Stresses and strains in ships in a seaway or due to loading or ballasting. A knowledge of the parts of a ship specially strengthened to withstand such stress or where excesive corrosion is liable to occur. Methods adopted during construction to prevent corrosion. Methods of compensating for discontinuity to strength, local and special stiffening.

(d) An outline knowledge of :-

Classification of ship.

Periodic surveys for retention of class.

Tonnage certificates and their purpose.

Load Line: period and conditions of validity of Certificate, requirements of annual survey.

(e) The use of Simpson’s first, second and the five-eight rules in the computation of areas, volumes and centroids.

(f) Determination of the position of the centre of gravity of a ship for different conditions of loading and ballasting. The effect on the position of the centre of gravity of adding, removing, shifting of suspending weights. To determine the virtual rise in the position of the centre of gravity due to slack tanks. Transverse and longitudinal metacentres, metacentric height. Initial stability and its limitation to small angles of inclination. Changes in stability during a voyage. Effect of a shift of cargo or solid ballast. Stiff and tender ship.

(g) Changes of trim and draught due to loading, discharging and shifting weights.

(h) Permeability of a compartment. The effect of bilging and flooding midship compartments symmetrical about the centre line.

(i) Use of the stability, hydrostatic and stress data supplied to ships. Curves of stability, factors effecting the shape of the curve, carriage of deck cargo and its influence on stability and structural stresses.

  1. Paper 4 (written).

Electricity (2 hours)

This subject will be examined to determine whether a candidate has sufficient knowledge to appreciate the behaviour of simple electrical circuits of types which are used in merchant ship. It will also cover knowledge of electricity to a standard required for an appreciation of the topics covered in Paper 5, Radio and Electronics. Simple calculations shall be based on fundamental relationship and practical application of physical laws.

(a) The topics in Electricity Paper 5 (g) in the syllabus for second mate (foreign going) to a higher standard’ than required in that examination.

(b) The magnetic effects of an electric current, effects on ferro-magnetic materials field due to a coil carrying current and the introduction therein of a ferro-magnetic core. Simple electro-magnetic devices, their functions and actions, the electric bell, buzzer: electro-magnetic relay, moving iron meter for measuring current.

(c) Effects of current carrying wires in the vicinity of a compass, twin wires carrying opposing currents. Effects of growth and decay of current on magnetic field and effects of field on nearby conductors.

Electro-magnetic induction, self induction, mutual induction, the induction coil.

(d) The electric generator principle, generation of an alternating voltage, the simple commutators, the simple D.C. generator. Effect of a load on the output voltage of a D.C. generator.

Simple electric circuits and their action, bell buzzer, alarm circuits.

Simple circuits using relays.

The telephone, carbon microphone, electro-magnetic, telephone. Simple telephone circuits.

(e) Alternating voltage and currents; their frequency and phase relationship, peak, average and R.M.S. values. The effects on an alternating current of resistance, capacitance and inductance. The simple A.C. circuits; descriptive treatment of: series A.C. circuit, parallel A.C. circuits and oscillations in a parallel circuit.

(f) Rectification and metal rectifiers. The transformer and its application in power packs.

  1. Paper 5 (writtern).

Safety, carriage of goods and ship maintenance (3 hours)

(a) Knowledge of the regulations relating to the carriage and handling of cargo, including the Merchant Shipping Gram Rules, deck cargo regulations, carriage of dangerous goods in ships and the relevant parts of the Factories Act. A general knowledge of the relevant Merchant shipping notices and IMCO publications including the Code of Safe Practice for bulk Cargoes.

(b) General principles of cargo stowage and handling and more detailed knowledge of the item mentioned in (d) of the General Ship Knowledge paper for second mate. Prevention of damage by cargo to ensure the safety of the ship. The carriage of special cargoes such as refrigerated cargo, liquids in bulk, deck cargoes and heavy lifts. The use of shifting boards and bins. Modern methods of carriage of cargo such as on pallets, and in containers, etc. Roll-on roll off vessels, unit handling of cargoes. Ballasting of a vessel, precautions to be taken with solid ballast, Spontaneous combustion.

(c) Carriage of bulk oil and multi-grade oil cargoes. Piping arrangements in bulk oil carriers. Tank cleaning and gas freeing. Ullage and temperature calculations. Requirements under the Oil in Navigable Waters Act. Precautions to be taken to avoid contamination of cargo. A general knowledge of the tanker safety code.

(d) Inspection and maintenance of ship and equipment; items to be covered include hull, bulkheads, double bottom, deep and peak tanks, bilges, strums, pipelines, rudder, anchors and cables, davits, safety equipment, derricks and all items of cargo working gear. Drydocking routine. General emergency repairs, repair lists.

(e) Properties and uses of paints, resins, and other protective coverings, Methods of corrosion control in steelwork and between dissimilar metals. Treatment of woodworkand composite decks. Maintenance of cement work.

(f) Documentation of vessel and cargo to include : Mate’s log book, mates’ receipts, boot notes, dangerous goods lists, waybills and cargo plans.

  1. Paper 6 (writtern).

Meteorology, ocean currents and routing (2 hours)

In addition to the syllabus for second mate (foreign-going) questions will be set on the following:

(a) Air masses; general ideas on source, regions, classification and properties. Structure of depressions, general distribution of weather in a depression. Fronts the frontal theory of the formation of depressions,. occlusions, occluded depressions, secondary depressions, families of depressions.

(b) Adiabatic changes in the atmosphere. Dry, saturated and environmental lapse rates. Stability, instability and conditional instability. The development of thunderstorms.

(c) A full knowledge of the development and decay of tropical revolving storms, their localities, names, seasons, tracks and associated weather, forecasting the probale movement. Navigation in the vicinity of and the rules for avoiding tropical storms. Reports to be made under international conventions.

(d) A knowledge of the information available under Sec. IV (Atlantic weather bulletin) of the `Ship’s Code and Decode Book’ of a synoptic chart to deduce the weather at pecified points and to forecast the probable changes over sea areas. Facsimile weather charts and their uses.

(e) Principal ocean currents; their names and characteristics. Causes of occean currents, general surface circulation of the ocean, direct and indirect effect of prevailing winds, gradient currents, seasonal changes in the general circulation.

(f) The main types of floating ice and their origins. General limit of ice in both hemispheres, seasonal development and recessions, movement of icebergs. Navigation in the vicinity of ice. Reports to be made under international conventions, Knowledge of ice patrol and observation service.

(g) Selection of ocean routes. General principles of weather routing, use of prognostic surface weather and wave charts.

  1. Oral and practical.

(1) (a) The handling of heavy weight with special reference to type and strength of gear used.

(b) The use and care of all deck and above deck appliances and fittings including winches, capstans, windglasses, davits fairleads, emergency steering gear and fittings used between anchor and cable locker.

(2) Anchors, different types of anchors and their advantages and disadvantages. Cables and their care.

Preparation for anchoring.

Operation of anchoring with a single anchor and use of a second anchor.

Clearing a foul and hawse.

Anchoring in a tideway and in a confined space.

Mooring.

Hanging an anchor.

Breaking and slipping cables.

Getting under way.

To carry out an anchor with boats.

(3) (a) Effect of current wind shallows and draught on manoeuvring.

Manoeuvring in rivers and harbours.

Berthing alongside and leaving quays and oil terminals with or without the use of tugs.

(b) Management of ships in heavy weather.

Means to employ to keep a ship, disabled, or unmanageable, out of the trough of the sea and to lessen the lee drift.

Handling a disabled ship.

Extra precautions to be taken before the onset of heavy weather.

(4) (a) An outline knowledge of the regulation concerning life saving and fire fighting appliances.

(b) An out line knowledge of articles of agreement.

(c) Measures to be taken following accidental damage including collision, grounding, heavy weather damage accident to hatches and leaks. Usual causes of fire on board ships. Elementary precautions to prevent fire. The nature of fire. Fire flighting with shipboard installation. International hose connection.

The organisation and direction of fire fighting and liferaft preparation parties.

(d) A practical knowledge of the screening of ship’s navigation lights.

(e) Preparation for dry docking and undocking. Use of shores, bilge blocks and bilge shores.

(f) Measures to be taken to prevent the spillage of oil during cargo work, bunkering or oil transfer. The keeping of records under the Oil in Navigable Waters Act.

(5) Collision Regulations as per Sec. 6 (a) of the oral syllabus for second mate.

(6) The examiner may ask the candidate questions arising out of the written work if it is deemed necessary on account of weakness shown by the-candidate.

  1. Signals.

(1) To send and receive signals:

(a) Semaphore up to eight words per minute.

(b) Morse code by flash lamp up to six words per minute.

(c) International code of signals.

(2) The practical use of shipborne radio telegraph installation (Auto key device), knowledge of the functions, characteristics and methods of using special types of radio beacons which are listed in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Vol. II example rotating beacons and talking beacons.

Master (Foreign-Going)

  1. Paper 1 (written).

Ship construction and stability (3 hours)

(a) An out line of shipyard practice and procedure including drawing office methods, plate and section making, process central and prefabrication. The use of special steels, aluminium and fire resistant materials in ship construction.

(b) (i) Types of ships. General ideas on strength and construction in relation to particular trades including specialised carriers.

(ii) Different methods of welding. Welding of Non-ferrous metal, Electrodes, their type and use. Inspection and testing of welds.

(c) Functions of ship classification societies. Freeboard and a general knowledge of the conditions of assignment. An outline of the cargo ship construction and survey rules and surveys required under the rules.

(d) Hull sub-division: methods adopted to maintain integrity of divisions and openings in the hull including side, stern and bow doors. Arrangements for restrictions’ the spread of fire in superstructures. Sound knowledge of damage control in case of damage resulting from collision stranding weather etc.

(e) Form co-efficient, wetted surface formula Simpson’s rule applied to area, second moment of areas. Volumes, moments or volumes, contreids and centre of pressure.

(f) Shearforce, and bending moments. Stresses produced by shear and bending.

To produce simple curves of load, shear force and bending moments.

Modem methods of determining the effect of different conditions or loading and ballasting on the ship’s structure.

(g) A more comprehensive knowledge of stability than is required for first mate (foreign-going) and in addition: stability to moderate and large angles or heal. Use of the wall-sided formula. The effect of the GZ curve as dynamical stability. Angle of loll. Shifting or adding weights with zero GM.

(h) Stability and trim when drydocking or grounding. Ship stability at sea. Dangers to a ship with a heavy list. Precautions when righting. Dock cargoes, homegoneous cargo and cargo liable to shift. Ballasting for stability consideration. The effect or beam and freeboard on stability. Effect of bilging and flooding of compartments symmetrical about centre line anywhere along the ship’s length.

(i) The inclining experiment.- The production of curves or stability. A comprehensive knowledge of the hydrostatic, stability and stress data supplies to ships.

  1. Paper 2 (written).

Commercial knowledge and ship’s business (2 hours)

(The legal knowledge required will not go beyond the outline of Acts and rules applicable to shipping and the mercantile law which a shipmaster must know in order to conduct the business of a ship ).

(a) Registration or ships. The certificate of registry and its legal significance

(b) Certificates and other document required to be carried on a ship how they are obtained, and the period of their legal validity. Suez and Panama canal certificates.

(c) Engagement, discharge and management of crew. Manning scales and certification. Contracts of employment wages and other remuneration. advances allotments, money orders, payments into bank accounts.

Desertions. deceased seaman, engagement of substitutes, repatriation.

(d) The official log book and the law relating to entries, offences relating to misconduct to endangering ship and against persons on board. Discipline and treatment of disciplinary offences. Civil liability for certain offences. Trade disputes involving seamen.

(e) Crew accommodation. Hygiene of the ship and welfare of the crew. An outline knowledge of the regulations relating to medical stores. Inspections and reports. Fresh water and provisions. Procedure in cases of infectious disease illness or accident. Fumigation and pest control. Maritime declarations of health. Port health requirements.

(f) Custom house procedure, entering and clearing ship.

(g) Load line marks, calculations involving their use. Entries and reports in respect of freeboard, draught and allowances.

(h) The safety of the ship, crew and passengers. Assistance of vessels in distress and salvage. Duties in the case of collision and accident.

(i) The law relating to the reporting of ice, deraliat’ revolving storms and other dangers to navigation.

(j) Compulsory and non-compulsory pilotage.

(k) A general knowledge of shipping practice and documents with particular reference to charter parties, bills of lading and mates receipts. An understanding of the main clauses in a contract of affreightment including freight, deviation, always afloat, ice, lay days, demurrage and despatch. The law relating to the carriage of cargo and the ship-owner’s liabilities and responsibilities. Protests, cargo surveys, certificates of seaworthiness.

(l) An outline knowledge of the expressed and implied conditions and statutory terms contained in a contract of marine insurance. An under standing of the terms: particular average, general average. Procedure at a port of refuge. Lloyd’s agents.

(m) To have an outline knowledge of acts and regulations as they affect the management of a ship including ;

(i) M. S.(Life Saving Appliances) Rules.

(ii) M. S. (Fire Appliances) Rules.

(iii) M. S. (Muster) Rules.

(iv) M. S. (Direction Finders) Rules.

(v) M. S. (Closing of Openings in Hulls and Watertight Bulkheads) Rules.

(vi) M. S. (Carriage of Dangerous Goods) Rules.

(vii) M. S. (Depth of Loading) Rules.

(viii) M. S (Distress Messages and Navigational Warnings) Rules

(ix) Unberthed Passenger-Ships Rules.

(x) M. S. (Pilot Ladders) Rules.

  1. Paper 3.

Radio and electronic aids to navigation (3 hours)

This syllabus includes all the radio and electronic aids to navigation which are installed on a high proportion of merchant ships or are available for use on those ships. The topics are covered to a standard which ensures a master having an understanding and appreciation of the efficient and effective use and applications of these aids whilst appreciating their capabilities and limitations. The topics covered include those facets of selection of equipment, its use and installation to a standard which will assist a master to advise on the use and choice of equipment, on selecting a site for its installation and on all those factors which can affect the operational efficiency and accuracy.

Where the syllabus mentions “equipment” it is not intended to indicate that a detailed knowledge of commercial equipments is needed. The standard of knowledge required is that which will enable a master to rapidly familarize himself with any commercial radio aids to navigation equipment installed on a ship.

(a) Position fixing systems.

(i) An understanding and graphical description of the general principles of position fixing by measurement of difference of distance from two or more fixed points; use of radio waves to obtain difference of distance by measurement of time difference and phase difference.

Generation of the hyperbolic curve by differences of distances from two fixed points; family of hyperbolic curves, the hyperbolic lattice on a navigational chart.

Family of hyperbolic curves when fixed points are a short distance apart, relationship of the hyperbolic, curves to true bearings of point midway between fixed points.

(ii) Decca navigator, Loran, Consol and other position fixing systems which are available for use on a substantial proportion of merchant ships; the characteristics, radio of coverage areas, limitations and accuracy of each system. The comparative accuracy of position fixing systems of all types including non-radio systems and methods. The errors which apply to each radio position fixing system and their magnitudes, the sources and causes of such errors. Error corrections and allowances for variable and uncorrectable errors.

Description of the equipment used with each system, its adjustment and use as an aid to position fixing. Recognition of the signs of maladjustment and erroneous information. The application of data obtained from each aid to fixing a position, fixing accuracy, ellipse of ambiguity.

Knowledge of the contents of the Merchant shipping notice relating to the use of the Decca navigator system.

(b) Radar.

(i) An explanatory description of the principles of radar. Outline of a radar system using a block schematic diagram to illustrate the essential functional units required in radar equipment and description of the functions and characteristics of those units. An appreciation of those characteristics of a radar set which determine the quality and accuracy of navigational information. The standards of accuracy and discrimination required for a type-tested, marine radar set. Measurement at sea, of the relative standards of performance of the radar set. Description of the effects of those operational controls which affect performance. Recognition of sub-standard performance and the effects of maladjusted controls. Description of the effects of sub-standard performance, an appreciation of the need for precaution. Knowledge and appreciation of the factors mentioned in Merchant Shipping notices relating to the installation of radar.

(ii) Use of radar. an appreciation of the capabilities and limitations of radar and of the factors and their effects which can limit the detection of objects and display of echoes.

Fixing a position from radar information, the effects of the characteristics of coastal features on detection and accuracy of fix. The principles of true and relative motion display, stabilized and unstabilized, with their relative advantages and disadvantages. Examples of methods of plotting available and their use. The objects and advantages of a plot of radar echoes as an aid to collision avoidance. An ability to obtain from a series of radar observations the information which a plot will provide.

(c) Direction Finding.

Description, with the aid of a block schematic diagram, of the elements of direction finding systems : (i) rotating loop system, (ii) fixed-loops system. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the two systems, and of manual and automatic systems.

An explanation of the relative advantages and disadvantages of compass stabilization of direction finder scales.

Knowledge of the instrumental factors which affect the accuracy of a direction finding equipment.

An appreciation of those factors and their effects which need to be considered when choosing a site for D.F. loops and sense aerials. A description of the effects of the ship, its superstructure, and aerials, including broadcast receiving aerials, of the accuracy of bearings. Errors due to the foregoing and how compensated, quadrantal errors, semi-circular errors. Calibration; knowledge of the statutory requirements in the Merchant Shipping (Direction finder) Rules and of Merchant shipping notices relating to direction finders.

Classification of bearings.

An appreciation of the capabilities and limitations of direction finding as an aid to navigation. A description of the use of radio beacon facilities to obtain a fix : (i) using bearings of independent beacons, (ii) using bearings of beacons whose operations are synchronzed. An appreciation of propagational errors; night effects, land effects.

(d) Echo Sounding Devices.

A description with the aid of block schematic diagrams, of the elements of a typical general purpose navigational echo-sounding system indicating the functions and characteristics of each unit.

Descriptions of the action of typical visual indicators and recorders.

Precautions necessary when using an echo sounder with phased scales.

The use of the operational controls of a typical echo sounder, including adjustments available for variations of draft.

A knowledge of any health hazards presented by paper used in recorders and the precautions to be observed.

A knowledge of typical values of sounding repetition rate, accuracy of soundings, maximum and minimum depths in general purpose navigational echo sounders.

A knowledge of the sources and effects of noises which interfere with the display of soundings : (i) internal noises; mechanical and electrical, (ii) water noises; aeration and reverberation.

Indications of maladjustments of controls which give excessive receiver sensitivity; receiver noise and multiple soundings.

A knowledge of the factor to be considered in choosing a site for echo sounder transducer installations.

Care of echo-sounding apparatus, preservation of records.

(e) Microwave communication system, preliminary ideas on its uses and its development as an electronic aid to navigation.

  1. Paper 4. (written)

Engineering knowledge instruments and control systems (2 hours).

This syllabus includes topics which require a practical understanding of the automatic control of main engines and associated data logging, interpretation of drawings and schematic diagrams. The knowledge required will not go beyond that considered necessary for the engineering content of the syllabus.

(a) Engineering knowledge to include section C (iii) of the General Physics paper for second mate and in addition :

(i) The meaning of the engineering terms :-

Saturated Steam.

Superheated Steam

Power

Proppiler-pitch

Slip.

(ii) A general knowledge of the following :

Types of marine boilers including auxiliary and waste heat boilers.

The action of turbine machinery.

Cycles of operation of compression-ignition engines.

Methods of scavenging and turbo-charging.

Procedure when warming up, turning, starting and stopping, reversing main engines.

Starting of emergency generators and fire pumps.

(iii) The use of bilge, ballast, cargo, circulating and feed pumps. The operation of regenerative condensors, boiling and flesh evaporators.

(iv) Fuel consumption and economical speeds, estimation of minimum fuel consumption to complete a passage. Simple problems involving pitch and slip.

(b) The general principles underlying the operation of remote control systems. Types of controls and the methods used in connection with pneumatic, electric and hydraulic control systems for main engine, pumps and valves, data logging, associated alarm and fail safe systems. Bridge control of main engine and bow trust units.

(c) (i) The generarprinciples underlying the operation of the following :-

Heat sensing by bi-metal strips.

Thermocouples and resistance change with temperature and the application in fire and equipment alarms and remote reading instruments.

(ii) Smoke detection systems and CO2 smothering.

Automatic sprinkler systems and their mode of operation. Ventilation shut-off controls.

(iii) Electric log and speed recording.

Helm and rudder indicators.

Electric telegraphs and data logging.

Master and repeater clocks associated with data logging systems.

Navigation light sentinel.

(iv) Auto helmsman, associated with gyro control, automatic course recorders, gyro stabilization of navigational aids, anti-rolling device control and alarm systems.

(v) Knowledge of the principles of intertial navigation system.

(vi) Pneumercator tank and draught gauges. Whessoe and allied type tank gauges.

(vii) Basic consideration in data processing, input storage/processing/output. Various input/output media such as punched card, magnetic tape, paper tape, etc. Various input/output devices such as card reader, paper tape reader, magnetic tape drive.

Punched cards : Column, rows.

How characters represented

Fields.

Card design.

Punching and verifying machine.

Layout of computer installation, memory, concept of stored programme, programme flow chart, source language, Assembler/compiler Machine languages.

General ideas on use of computer in scientific, commercial and other allied fields.

  1. Paper 5.

Magnetism, magnetic and gyro compasses (3 hours)

A more detailed knowledge of the principles of magnetism than is required under the general physics paper for second mate.

(a) The construction of the magnetic compass and binnacle, the effect of constraining a compass needle to the horizontal plane. The method of determination and compensation by means of components of the effect of a ship’s magnetic field on the magnetic compass. The approximate co-efficients A, B, C, D and E. Conditions which might produce co-efficients A and E. Analysis of a table of deviations to obtain approximatge co-efficients. Methods of obtaining a table of deviations. Constants Lambda and Mu. The ship’s multiplier. To dertermine the deviation caused by a ship’s permanent magnetism and/or induced magnetism in vertical soft iron by means of observations taken in two widely separated magnetic latitudes.

(b) General principles of compass correction and the method of correction for co-efficient B, C and D. Heeling error, its cause, effects and the method of correction. Effect of heeling error magnets on soft iron correctors. A simple treatment of the effects of degaussing.

(c) Siting of compasses with reference to the proximity of magnetic material and electrical appliances. Care and maintenance of liquid compasses.

(d) The properties of the free gyroscope. – The relationship between applied force and precision. The effect of the Earth’s rotation on a free gyroscope. Drift and tilt, damping, Errors associated with gyro compasses including latitude, course and speed error, ballistic deflection and its relation to change of speed error. Latitude, course and speed correction, rolling error and how it is minimised. The principal parts of a gyro compass, follow up and repeater systems. Fundamental differences in the construction and operation of the better known gyro compasses.

(e) An appreciation of the systems under the control of the master gyro e.g. repeaters including those for D.G. and radar stabilization automatic steering.

  1. (1) Candidates for certificate of competency as Master (Foreign-going) who have not passed the examination for certificate of competency as First Mate (Foreign-going) under these rules shall also be required to appear for the paper in Meteorology as referred to in rule 109.

(2) Candidates securing 50 per cent of the marks allotted in that paper shall be considered as successful in the examination if otherwise successful inn the,written part of the examination prescribed for Master (Foreign-going)

(3) Candidates failing to secure the requisite 50 per cent marks in the Meteorology paper if otherwise successful in the written part of the examination prescribed for Master (Foreign-going) shall be required to appear and pas in that paper only, at the subsequent attempt : For the purposes of any such attempts the requirements of paragraph 3 of rule 66 shall not apply provided the candidate has passed the oral and signals Part of the examination.

  1. Oral and practicals.

(1) (a) Exceptional circumstances.

Loss of rudder and/or propeller.

Jury steering arrangements.

Action to be taken following collision or sustaining damage of any kind.

Precautions when beaching a ship.

(b) Steps to be taken when disabled and in distress.

Preservation of passengers and crew in the event of an emergency.

Limiting damage and salving the ship following a fire or explosion.

Abandoning ship; survial procedure.

Abandoing a wrecked ship.

Communications with the shore.

The use of rockets and rocket apparatus.

(c) Assisting a ship or aircraft in distress. The use of direction finding for homing on to a casualty.

Rescuing the crew of a disabled ship or ditched aircraft.

Manoeuvring for launching of life boats or liferafts in bad weather. Man overboard procedures.

(d) Bad weather manoeuvres.

Precautions at anchor and at sea.

Use of oil.

Choice of anchorage.

Anchoring and working anchors and cables in all circumstances.

Factors involved in determining the length of anchor cable to be used.

Knowledge of engine characteristics stopping distance and turning circles for manoeuvring.

Approaching pilot vessels with due regard to weather and tide.

Handling a vessel in rivers, estuaries harbours etc. having regard to the effects of currents, wind restricted water on the response to the helm.

The effect of squat and of manoeuvring in shallow waters.

Interaction between passing vessels and between own vessel and nearly banks e.g. canal effect.

Importance of navigating with prudence with regard to damage caused by own ship’s waves.

Approaching off-shore loading points under open sea conditions.

(e) Towing and being towed.

(f) Drydocking.

General procedure and precautions to be observed.

Distribution of weight.

Drydocking with full cargo for inspection of propellers and shafting Bilge blocks.

Leaving a ship waterbone.

Putting into port with damage to ship and/or cargo, both from business and technical points of view.

Safeguarding of cargo.

(g) Prevention of fire at sea and in port.

Methods used to prevent the spread of fire.

Action to be taken to prevent the spread of fire.

Full knowledge of the use of fire appliances and the precautions to be taken in their use.

Appreciation of the ways in which action can best be taken when emergencies arise in port, e.g. a fire on own or nearby vessel, or on adjacent port facility, need to seek sea-room in the event of adverse weather.

(h) Methods of pest control and of fumigation of holds and living spaces safeguards in applying various methods.

(i) General organisation of ships management.

Crew welfare and training.

Crew representation.

Complaints procedure.

Routine inspections of living quarters and store rooms.

(1) Compensation and adjustment of compasses; candidates will be questioned on the practical adjustment of the magnetic compass using a ships binnacle and compass.

(2) Collision Regulations as per Sec. 6(a) of the oral syllabus for second mate.

The use of and navigation in traffic separation schemes.

(3) (a) Radiotelephony. A knowledge of distress and safety communications procedures on the radio-telephone distress and calling frequency as indicated in the International Code of Signals and in the post office handbook for radio operators. (U.K.).

(b) Portable radio equipment. The preparation and use of portable radio equipment as used in lifeboats an liferafts including erection of aerials and knowledge of the facilities and frequencies provided with the equipment.

(c) Port radio information services. Knowledge of the types of service available to aid vessels entering ports and assist in berthing etc. as indicated in admiralty list of radio signals “port radio stations and pilot vessels”.

(4) The examiner may ask the candidate questions arising out of the written work, if it is deemed necessary on account of weakness shown by the candidate.

  1. Signals.– To send and receive signals in :

(a) Semaphore upo to eight words per minute.

(b) Morse code by flash lamp up to six sords per minute.

(c) International code of signals.

Mate (Home Trade).

  1. Paper 1.(written).-

Practical navigation (3 hours)

A candidate will be required

(a) to solve problems on plane, parallel and mercator sailing.

(b) to find the latitude by meridian altitude of the sun or star,

(c) to find the latitude by an observation of Polaris.

(d) to find the position line and the latitude at which it crosses a given meridian, when provided with the data obtained from an observation of the sun or star near the meridian.

(e) to determine the position line and a position through which it passes given data obtained from an observation of the sun or star out of the meridian.

(f) to obtain the ship’s position by the combination of morning sun sight and the Meridian Altitude of the sun with run, and

(g) to find the true bearing of the sun or star and thence the deviation of the compass for the directions of the ship’s head.

  1. Paper 2.

General ship knowledge (2 hours)

A candidate will be required

(a) to know the elements of ship construction,

(b) to have a knowledge of pumping arrangements on ships,

(c) show his practical acquaintance with, and knowledge of, longitudinal and transverse framing, shell plating, decks watertight bulkheads, stern frames, rudders, water ballast tanks, bulkhead sluices, sounding pipes and air pipes, the structure of a vessel generally and the causes/prevention of corrosion in a ship’s hull,

(d) know the meaning of the terms “displacement” and “deadweight”,

(e) to understand the laws of floating bodies.

(f) to know how to use the displacement scale and the tonnes per centimetre scale to determine weights of cargo or other items from draughts,

(g) know the effect of density of water on draught and the application of the fresh water allowance.

(h) a general understanding of Centre of Gravity and Centre of buoyancy and the effects of adding, removing and shifting weights.

(i) to have a knowledge of the rigging of a ship for loading or discharging cargo and the use of derricks and winches, the stowage and dunnaging of cargoes of all types, elementaries on carriage of Dangerous Goods, and an outline knowledge of relevant parts of Indian Dock Labour Regulations, and

(j) to be familiar with the care, maintenance and use of lifeboats, lifeboat equipment, buoyant apparatus inflatable rafts, lifebuoys, lifejackets, line-throwing appliances, lights and sound signals.

  1. Paper (written).

Chartwork and pilotage (2 hours)

A candidate will be required

(a) to convert true courses into magnetic and compass courses or vice versa, given the variation and a table of deviation,

(b) to find the compass course between two positions,

(c) to understand the effect of current on speed,

(d) to understand the effect of leeway,

(e) to find the course made good, given the compass course steered, the speed of the ship, the direction and rate of the current and leeway, if any,

(f) to find the course to steer allowing for a current andy leeway, if any,

(g) to fix the ship’s position on a chart by means of : Simultaneous cross bearings, bearing and range, radio cross hearings applying the necessary corrections, bearings of one or more objects given the run between bearings, current and leeway, if any.

(h) to find the distance at which the ship will pass a given point.

(i) to answer questions on : Clearing and leading marks, horizontal and vertical danger angles, distance of sighting lights and distance of a point of land of known height.

(j) to find the time and height of high and low water at a Standard Port using Indian tide tables.

(k) to find the height of tide at any given time by means of interpolation tables or diagrams and thence find the approximate correction to be applied to soundings or to charted heights of shore objects.

(i) to demonstrate the ability to make intelligent use of Sailing Directions,

(m) to understand the use of Notices to Mariners and to be familiar with the process of chart correction, and

(n) to answer oral questions pertaining to information given on a chart or plan with particular reference to Buoys, lights, D.F. Radio Beacon and similar aids to navigation, depths and nature of the bottom, contour lines, tides and tidal streams, and recognition of the coast.

  1. Paper 4 (written).

Meteorology (1 1/2 hours)

A candidate will be required

(a) to understand the principle, construction and use of : The simple mercurial barometer and the aneroid barometer the marine mercurial barometer and barograph, the thermometer, hygrometer and hydrometer;

(b) to have a knowledge of: The reduction of barometric readings to standard datum by means of tables or by use of the Gold slide. The distribution of mean pressure, the prevailing wind, and the current circulation in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Tropical revolving storms in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, their localities, seasons and tracks. The rules for avoiding tropical storms;

(c) to have a knowledge of : The Beaufort wind scale and weather notation in use at sea including a knowledge of the methods of estimating the direction and force of the wind at sea. A knowledge of weather code including coding and decoding of weather reports transmitted by merchant ships : Storm warning signals displayed at Indian Ports.

  1. Oral and practical.– (a) to have a thorough kinowledge of : The rigging of ships and the strength of chains, wire ropes and fibre ropes. Purchases of all kinds and the power gained by purchases. Knotting and splicing with strict reference to current practices, Seizings, rackings and stoppers. Practical ropework and canvas work. The management of boats under oars, sail or power in all weathers and circumstances. Emergency manoeuvres such as man overboard. Use and upkeep of mechanical logs and sounding machines. The use and upkeep of engine room and other telegraphs. The use and upkeep of line-throwing appliances. The general knowledge and use of life saving appliances. The use of fire appliances including emergency fire pump. A general knowledge of fire fighting on ships.

(b) to have a practical knowledge of safe working methods and good seamanship regarding: Loading and discharging cargo. Mooring and unmooring ship. Ganways, stages and topside work, and entering and working in tanks or other confined spaces;

(c) to have a practical konwledge of : The use and care of all deck and above deck appliances and fittings including winches, capstans, windglasses, emergency steering gear, and fittings used between anchor and cable locker. Hoisting and lowering boats. The different types of anchors including the advantages and disadvantages of each type and Anchor cables and their care;

(d) to have a practical knowledge of the handling and management of a ship including : Preparations for anchoring. Anchoring with a single anchor and the use of the second anchor. Mooring and anchoring in a tideway and in aconfined space. Getting under way;

(e) to have a knowledge of general principles of loading, stowage, carriage and discharging of all types of cargoes including dangerous cargoes;

(f) to have a knowledge of the management of a ship with special reference to the duties of a first mate regarding: Preparation for getting under way, of proceeding to sea making harbour or entering a dock. Coming alongside or securing to a buoy or buoys. Keeping an anchor watch and actions to be taken when dragging anchor, and the duties of an officer of the watch when under way and the use of the campass to ascertain risk of collision. The duties of an officer of watch when in port and also when working cargo;

(g) to have a full knowledge of : The contents and application of the Regulations for preventing collisions at sea. The possible manoeuvres of a sailing vessel according to the direction of the wind. Distress and pilot signals including the penalties for misuse. The uniform system of buoyage and wreck marking system. The contents and use of Notices to Mariners and M.O. T. Notices. The International Life Saving Signals;

(h) to be completely familiar with instruments which are used at sea including the aneroid barometer, barograph and the mercurial barometer, thermometers of all types, the hygrometer and the hydrometer, azimuth mirror.

(i) to be able to correctly adjust a sextant into which has been introduced one or more of perpendicularity side or index errors and to use a sextant for taking vertical and horizontal angles.

  1. Signals.– (1) To send and receive signals :-

(a) Semaphore up to eight words per minute,

(b) Morse-code flash lamp up to six sords per minute,

(c) International Code of Signals.

(2) (a) A knowledge of distress and safety communications procedures on radio-telephony as contained in the “International code of signals” and the avoidance of unnessary transmission.

(b) Practical. To prepare portable radio equipment for operation in lifeboat or liferaft, erect aerial and operate the radio-telephone facility.

(c) Practical use of shipborne Direction Finder.

Master (Home Trade)

  1. Paper 1(written).

Practical Navigation (3 hours)

A candidate will be required:

(a) to answer questions based upon the syllabus for Mate (Home Trade) extended to include the planets;

(b) to obtain the position of the ship at any time by use of traverse tables when given; an initial position or data for finding same. Compass courses and errors, the ship’s run as recorded by log or by means of estimated speed and time and data for finding the allowance to be made for the effects of winds and/or current, if any;

(c) to obtain the ship’s position by a combination of any two observations with or without an intervening run;

(d) to find the approximate time of the meridian passage of the sun, a star or a planet;

(e) to be able to plot information received from radar and to make an intelligent use of the same;

(f) the recognition of stars of the first magnitude by reference to principal constellations.

  1. Paper 2 (written).

Ship Construction and Stability (2 hours)

A candidate will be required:

(a) to have a knowledge of : The principal structural members of a ship. The proper names of the various parts. The construction of the midship sections of single deck, tween deck and shelter deck ships. The functions, constructions and stiffening of wateright bulkheads including the collision bulkhead. The construction of rudders and methods of attachment. The construction, stiffening and closing arrangement of hatchways. Rivets and reiveting including testing riverts. Elementary ideas of welding. The stresses and strains in ships in a seaway or due to loading and ballasting. The parts of a ship which are specially strengthened in order to withstand local and general stresses, or to offset the effects of excessive corrosion;

(b) to have a knowledge of writing a report of damage sustained during a voyage. Directing simple repairs, and Certificates of sea worthiness;

(c) To have a knowledge of : The righting couple when a ship is inclined by an external force. The transverse and longitudinal metacentres matacentric height. The computation or areas and volumes by Simpson’s first and second rules. The determination of the centre of gravity of a ship in a new condition, the centre of gravity in the previous condition being given. The behaviour of stiff and tenderships. The effect of a shift of cargo or solid ballast. The danger of free surface of liquids. The calculation of change of trim, moment to change trim per cms. and the position of the centre of floation being given. The use of stability curves and data supplied to a ship. Effect of bilging of a copartment of the ship (No calculations).

  1. Paper 3 (written).

Chartwork and Pilotage (2 hours)

A candidate will be required:

(a) to answer questions based upon the syllabus for Mate (Home Trade):

(b) the construction and use of a line of soundings, the use of a single position line in approaching a coast and other circumstances. The use of radio beacons and shore direction finding stations;

(c) to find the times and heights of high and low water at a secondary port by means of tidal difference (Admiralty Tide Tables Vol.H);

(d) to answer questions on : The reliability of charts. The selection of suitable points for bearings, or for fixing the ship’s position by means of horizontal and vertical sextant angles. Approaching an anchorage and navigating in narrow water. Making landfalls or proceeding along a coast in thick and clear weather.

(e) to answer any oral questions which the examiner deems necessary.

  1. Paper 40 (written).

Elementary Magnetism and Compass (Ph hours)

(a) to have a knowledge of : The simple magnet and its poles. The law of attraction and repulsion. The characteristics of magnetic field surrounding a magnet;

(b) to have a knowledge of the magnetic compass including: The effects on the magnetic compass of the ships magnetic field. The methods of obtaining a table of deviations. The general principles of compass correction.. The sitting of compasses with particular reference to the proximity of magnetic material and electrical appliances. Care and Maintenance of magnetic compasses.

(c) in gyro compass a candidate will be required to have a simple non-mathematical knowledge of : The principle of the free gyroscope, starting and stopping of gyro compasses and maintenance routine.

  1. Paper 5.

Mateorology (1 1/2 hours)

A candidate will be required :

(a) to have a fuller knowledge of meteorology than that required for Mate (Home Trade);

(b) to have a knowledge of : Formation of clouds and principal cloud types. Land and sea breezes. Local winds experienced in home trade water e.g. Elephanta;

(c) to have a knowledge of : The types of weather messages which ale availably to shipping in home trade waters. Coding and decoding of weather messages transmitted by ships.

  1. Oral and practical.– A candidate will be required:

(a) to answer question out of syllabus for Mates (Home Trade);

(b) to have a knowledge of : Effect of propellers on steering of a ship. Manoeuvring in rivers and harbours. The means to employ to keep a vessel, which is disabled or unmanageable, out of the trough of the sea and how to lessen her lee drift. The handling of a disabled ship;

(c) to have a practical knowledge of the management of a ship in case of accidents including : Collision and grounding. Accidents to hatches and running repairs;

(d) to have a knowledge of the practical aspects of handling and managing a ship in exceptional circumstances including damage control in case of collision, grounding or other accident. The procedure when grounded and methods of refloating. The procedure when beaching a vessel. The procedure in case of wreck with special emphasis on the preservation of crew and passengers, the methods of abandoning a wrecked ship, the use of rockets and rocket apparatus and communications with the shore. Rendering assistance to a vessel in distress. Rescuing the crew of a disabled vessel, and air-sea rescue procedure on the Indian coast. Towing and being towed. Manoeuvring in bad weather. The use of oil in bad weather and in rescue operations. The precautions to be taken at anchor and at sea;

(e) to have a knowledge of the prevention and extinction of fire aboard ship including a full knowledge of : The dangers of spontaneous combustion. The use of fire appliances and the precautions to be taken when using them. The methods of extinguishing different types of fires:

(f) to have an outline knowledge of Merchant Shipping Act with special reference to sections dealing with : Engagement and discharge of seamen, ship’s articles of agreement. The property of deceased seamen. Provisions, health and accommodation. Official logs and the return of lists of crew. The return of births and deaths, the delivery of documents on change of master and the employment of childern and young persons. Compulsory and non-compulsory pilotage and the payment of pilotage dues. Safety certificates, “the overloading of ships and safety precautions”. Load lines including sub-division load lines. The safety of ships, passengers and crew. Reporting of storms and other dangers to navigation. Reporting of accidents. Assistance of vessels in distress. Duties in case of collision. Wrecks salvage and investigations into shipping casualties;

(g) to have an outline knowledge of Acts and Regulations as they affect the management of a ship including. M.S. (L.S.A.) Rules. M.S. (Fire Appliances) Rules. M.S. (Muster) Rules. M.S. (Carriage of Dangerous Goods) Rules. M.S. (Direction Finders) Rules. M.S. (Cloasing of Opening in Hulls and Watertight Bulkheads) Rules. M.S. (Depth of Loading) Rules. M.S. (Distress Messages and Navigational Warning) Rules. Unberthed Passengerships Rule. M.S. (Pilot Ladders) Rules;

(h) to have a knowledge of : The certificates and other documents required to be carried on a ship including the procedure for obtaining them and the period of their legal validity;

(i) to have a general knowledge of the law and shipping practice with regard to the carriage of goods by sea;

(j) the practical use of Radar and Decca.

  1. Signals.– (1) To send and receive signals in:

(a) British semaphore up to eight words per minute.

(b) Morse code by flash lamp up to six words per minute.

(c) International Code of Signals.

(2) The practical use of shipborne radio telegraph installation (Auto Key device) knowledge of the functions, characteristics and methods of using radio beacons.

Yacht Master

  1. Written Examination.– The written examination for aYacht’s certificate will be the same as that prescribed for a foreign-going Master’s certificate, except that in addition the candidate will be required to take the papers in navigation and chart work laid down for First Mate and that the papers on Shipmaster’s Business and Engineering and Radio Aids will be omitted from the examination.
  2. Oral examination.– (1) (a) A thorough knowledge of the Rules of the Road both as regards steamships and sailing vessels (see Appendix E).

(b) Signals of distress, and the signals to be made by ships wanting a pilot; the liabilities and penalties incurred by the misuse of these signals.

(c) Uniform system of buoyage and the wreck marking system.

(2) (a) Making and taking in sail and the management of a yacht under canvas in moderate or stormy weather.

(b) How to keep a vessel out of the trough of the sea in the event of accident; how to rig rafts and jury rudders. The steps to take when a vessel is disabled or unmanageable and drifting towards a lee shore.

(c) To moor and unmoor ship; keep a clear anchor; to carry out an anchor.

(d) Preservation of crew in the event of wreck.

(e) Any other practical questions relating to the management of a yacht either steam or sailing, which the Examiner may consider necessary.

(3) (a) The use and adjustments of a sextant.

(b) The use and management of rocket apparatus.

(c) The marking and use of the lead line and log line.

(4) (a) The measures to adopt for preventing and checking an outbreak of scurvy on board.

(b) A knowledge of what the Master of a Yacht is required to do under the Merchant Shipping Acts.

  1. Signals.– To send and receive signals in :

(a) British Semaphore up to eight words per minute.

(b) Morse Code by flash lamp up to six words per minute.

(c) International Code of Signals.

Sailing Ship Endorsements

  1. Second Mate, Sailing Ship Endorsement.– The candidate must understand and give satisfactory answers on the following subjects ;-

(a) The standing and running rigging of ships.

(b) Bending, unbending, setting, reefing, taking in and furling sail.

(c) Sending masts and yards up and down, etc.

(d) Management of a ship when under canvas.

(e) A thorough knowledge of the Rule of the Road as regards sailing vessels (see Appendix E).

(f) Any questions appertaining to the duties of a Second Mate of a sailing ship that the Examiner may think necessary to ask.

  1. First Mate, Sailing Ship Endorsement.– In addition to the qualifications required for a Second Mate’s sailing ship endorsement, the candidate will be required to show a knowledge of the following subjects:

(a) Shifting large spars, rigging sheers, taking lower masts in and out.

(b) How to moor and unmoor ship; to keep a clear anchor; and to carry out an anchor.

(c) How to manage a ship in stormy weather.

(d) How to secure the masts in the event of accident to the bowsprit.

(e) How to rig purchases for getting heavy weights, anchors, machinery, etc. in or out.

(f) How to get a cast of the deep sea lead in heavy weather.

(g) Accidents and how to deal with them.

(h) Any other questions appertaining to the duties of a First Mate of a sailing ship which the Examiner may think necessary to ask.

  1. Master, Sailing Ship Endorsement.– In addition to the qualifications required for the sailing ship endorsement for Second and First Mate the candidate will be required to show a knowledge of the following subjects:

(a) Management of ship in heavy weather.

(b) Rescuing the crew of a disabled vessel.

(c) Steps to be taken when a ship is on her beam ends, or in any danger or difficulty, or disabled or unmanageable and on a lee shore.

(d) Heaving a keel out.

(e) Any other question appertaining to the management of sailing ship which the Examiner may think it necessary to ask.

  1. Mate Home Trade Sailing Ship Endorsement.-The candidate must understand and give satisfactory answer on the following subjects :

(a) The standing and running rigging subjects.

(b) Bending, unbending, setting, roofing, taking in, and furfing sail.

(c) Sending masts and yards up and down, etc.

(d) Management of a ship when under canvas.

(e) A thorough knowledge of the Rule of the Road as regards sailing vessels (see Appendix E).

(f) How to moor and unmoor a ship; to keep a clear anchor; and to carry out an anchor.

(g) How to manage a ship in stormy weather.

(h) How to secure the masts in the event of accident to the bowsprit.

(i) Accidents, and how to deal with them.

(j) Any other questions appertaining to the duties of a Mate of a home trade sailing ship which the Examiner may think necessary.

  1. Master, Home Trade Sailing Ship Endorsement.– In addition to the qualifications required for the sailing ship endorsement for Mate, home trade, the candidate will be required to show a knowledge of the following subjects

(a) Management of ship in heavy weather.

(b) Rescuing the crew of a disabled ship.

(c) Steps to be taken when a ship is on her beam ends, or in any danger or difficulty, or disabled or unmanageable and on a lee shore.

(d) Heaving a keel out.

(e) Any other question appertaining to the management of a home trade sailing ship which the Examiner may think it necessary to ask.

APPENDIX A

(a) Examination days and places : Masters and Mates Certificates in India.

Port Examination Place Day
Bombay Second Mate, First Mate, Master (Foreign-going). Mate and Master (Home trade) Yacht Master. Mercantile Marine Office, Commerce House, Currimbhoy Road, Ballard Estate, Bombay Examinations generally commence on the first Monday in each month. The dates can be ascertained on application at the Mercantile Marine Office.
Calcutta Second Mate,First Mate, Master (Foreign-going), Mate and Master (Home trade) Yacht Master. Mercantile Marine Office, Marine House, Hastings, Calcutta Ditto

Note:- The dates for the voluntary examination in Compass Deviation and the voluntary examination in Signalling can be ascertained on application to the Principal Offices, Bombay or Calcutta.

(b) Examinations days and places : Extra Master’s Mates and Mates Certificates in the United Kingdom.

Day in each month on which examination begins
Port
2nd Mate foreign going 1st Mate and Master-foreign going Mate Home trade Master trade
Belfast 1st Monday 2nd Monday 1st Monday 2nd Monday
Cardiff 1st Monday 2nd Monday 1st Monday 2nd Monday
Glassgow 1st and 3rd Monday 2nd and 4th Monday 1st Monday 2nd Monday
Hull 1st Monday 2nd Monday 1st Monday 2nd Monday
Leith 1st Monday 2nd Monday 1st Monday 2nd Monday
Liverpool 1st and 3rd Monday 2nd and 4th Monday 1st Monday 2nd Monday
London 1st and 3rd Monday 2nd and 4th Monday 1st Monday 2nd Monday
Newcastle 1st and 3rd Monday 2nd and 4th Monday 1st Monday 2nd Monday
Southampton 1st Monday 2nd Monday 1st Monday 2nd Monday

The examinations for Extra Masters certificates are held at the ports in the above list and begin as follows: Part Ion the first Monday and Part II on the second Monday in March, July and November.

N.B. – The examination days and the ports at which examinations are held are liable to be changed, and candidates are advised to ascertain the actual date of examination from the Superintendent of the Mercantile Marine Office, or the local Examiner of Masters and Mates. Examinations will be suspended during August in each year and will be resumed on the first Monday in September.

APPENDIX B

(a) Ports where sight test are held in India.-A list showing the ports at which sight tests are held in India and the days of examination is given below.

Bombay-Any working day.

Calcutta-Any working day.

Madras-By appointment.

Cochin-By appointment.

A candidate who wishes to have his sight tested should apply, in the first place, to any one of the Principal Officers Mercantile Marine Department, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras or the Surveyor-in-charge, Mercantile Marine Department, Cochin.

(b) Ports where examinations in the sight tests are held in the United Kingdom. – A list showing the ports at which sight tests are held and the days of examination is appended.

A candidate who wishes to have his sight tested at any of these ports other than Liverpool should apply to the Superintendent of the Mercantile Marine Office at the port concerned.

At Liverpool application should be made to the Marine Survey Office at the address given below. The normal hours for the sight tests are 9.30 A.M. to 12.30 P.M. and wherever possible candidate should attend between those hours. A candidate who lives at a distance from the port and cannot attend before 12.30 P.M. should apply in writing to the Superintendent for special appointment.

Aberdeen – Second Friday in every month at 2 P.M. Other days by appointment.

Belfast – Every Monday.

Bristol – First and Third Mondays in every month.

Cardiff – Every Monday.

Dundee – Fourth Monday in every month.

Falmouth – By appointment.

Fleetwood – Every Tuesday at 10.30 A.M.

Glassgow – Every Wednesday and Saturday. Other days by appointment only.

Great Yarmouth – By appointment.

Greenock – Every Monday.

Grimsby – Every Saturday.

Hull – Every Friday and Saturday.

Leith – Any day by appointment.

Liverpool (Royal Liver Building) – Every Thursday, Friday and Saturday.

London (Dock Street, E.l.) – Every Friday and Saturday.

London (133, E: India Dock Road, E. 14) – Every Monday and Thursday

London (Victoria Docks, E. 16) – Every Wednesday and Thursday.

London (Tilbury, Essex) – Every Thursday and Friday.

Middlesborough – Every Tuesday.

Milford Haven – By appointment.

Newcastle – Every Friday and Saturday.

Plymouth – Every Monday.

Ramsgate – By appointment.

Southampton – Every Wednesday and Friday.

South Shields – Every Wednesday.

Sunderland – Every Monday.

Swansea – Every Monday and Tuesday.

APPENDIX C

SIGHT TESTS

Details as to the conduct of the tests

The purpose of these tests is to ensure that the candidate’s eyesight is sufficiently good to enable him to pick up and identify correctly the lights of distant ships at sea. Experience has shown that for this purpose he must be able to reach certain minimum standards both of form and colour vision.

The tests employed are two, a letter test and a lantern test, details of which are given below. The letter test is a test of form vision only, and the lantern test is a test of form and colour vision combined.

The test will be conducted under the strict personal supervision of the Examiner, who will keep a record of all mistakes made by the candidate both in the Letter test and in the Lantern test.

A candidate who holds a Certificate of Competency as Master, Mate. Skipper or Second Hand will not again be required to be examined in Lantern Test.

Spectacles not allowed. – During the examination in the sight test candidates will not be allowed to use spectacles, contact lenses, or glasses of any kind, or any other artificial aid to vision. They will, however, have the option of using either eye separately or both eyes together.

LETTER TEST

  1. The first test which the candidate is required to undergo is the letter test conducted on Snellen’s principle by means of sheets of letters, Each sheet contains 7 lines, the 5th, 6th and 7th lines corresponding to standards 5/10, 5/7:5 and 5/5 respectively.
  2. Standard of vision required.– With the exceptions indicated below (see para 5 ) every candidate will be required to read correctly five of the six letters in the sixth line and four of the seven letters in the seventh line, at a distance of 16 feet from the eye.
  3. Method of testing.– Artificial illumination will be used in preference to day-light owing to the impossibility of securing uniformity where the latter is used. Where suitable dark rooms are available the test sheets will be hung on a wall at a height of five or six feet from the floor, with two electric light bulbs each of 47 watts placed horizontally and suitably screened so that the light falls directly on two lines of letters on the sheet.

The test room will be moderately illuminated and care taken that there are no glaring lights or bright objects in the candidate’s field of vision. Extreme contrast between the illuminated test card and the background will be avoided.

If a suitable dark room is not available the test sheets will be hung on a wall at the required height in a good light, but not in direct sunlight.

When the candidate has taken up the correct position one of the sheets will be exposed, and he will be asked to read the letters on the sheet from left to right, beginning at the top and going downwards. If at the conclusion of the test the candidate is found to reach the required standard, he will be considered to have passed and will then proceed to the lantern test unless he holds a Certificate of Competency.

  1. Failure.– (a) If the candidate fails to reach the standard required on the first sheet he will be tested with at least four sheets and the following alternative explained to him:

(i) He may break off the examination and present himself for re-examination in not less than three months in which case a certificate of failure will be issued to him; or

(ii) He may proceed to the lantern test. In this case a record of all mistakes made in the letter test and all mistakes, if any, made in the lantern test will be forwarded to the Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates, who will decide whether the candidates has passed or failed in form vision.

(b) Failure to pass the letter test is due to some defect in form vision, which is sometimes carable. Whenever, therefore, a candidate fails to pass this test he will be advised to consult an ophthalmic surgeon with a view to ascertaining the nature of the defect in his form vision, and whether it is curable.

  1. Lower standard required in certain cases.– Candidates who are in possession of certificates of competency obtained before 1st January, 1914, may be regarded as passing the letter test if they can read correctly with either eye or both eyes together 3 of the 5 letters on the fifth line of a test sheet.
  2. Care will be taken by varying the order of the test sheets and by every other means to guard against the possibility of any deception on the part of the candidate.

II-LANTERN TEST

  1. Apparatus.– A special lantern and a mirror is provided for this test. The test is conducted in a room so darkened as to exclude all daylight. The lantern will be placed directly in front of the mirror, so that the front part of the lantern is exactly ten feet from the mirror, and in such a position that the lights reflected in the mirror show clearly when viewed by the candidate on the left of the lantern.
  2. Darkness adaptation.– If a candidate makes mistakes at the beginning of the lantern test he will be kept in a completely or partially darkened room for at least a quarter of an hour and will then begin the test again.
  3. Method of testing.– The lantern supplied for the examination is so constructed as to allow one large or two small lights to be visible, and is fitted with 12 glasses of three colours-red, white and green. At the beginning of the examination the candidate will be shown a series of lights through the large aperture, and he will be required to name the colours as they appear. Care will be taken in showing the white light to emphasise the fact that this light is not a pure white. If a candidate makes a mistake in calling this light “red,” a proper red light will be shown immediately after and his attention directed to the difference between the two.

After a series of lights through the large aperture has been shown, two complete circuits and one broken circuit with the two small apertures will be made, the candiate naming the colours of each set of two lights from left to right.

  1. Passing or failure.– (a) If a candidate does not make any mistake in the lantern test after passing the latter test he will be deemed to have passed the whole examination and the examiner will issue a certificate to that effeet.

(b) If, with either the large aperture or the two smaller apertures of the lantern, a candidate mistakes red for green or green for red, he will be considered to have failed in the lantern test.

(c) If a candidate makes any other mistake with the lantern, i.e., if he calls white “red” or red “white” or confuses green and white, his case will be submitted to the Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates, and he will be told that the decision as to whether he is passed or failed, or must undergo a further examination, will be communicated to him in due course. Pending the receipt of the Chief Examiner’s, instructions, a candidate for a certificate of competency will only be allowed to proceed with such examination on the express understanding that the latter examination will be cancelled in the event of failure at the sight tests.

(d) Candidates will be notified on an appropriate form of their success or failure or else that their case has been referred for special consideration.

(e) A candidate who fails to pass the local lantern test may not be re-examined locally, unless the Chief Examiner decides that he may be re-examined after three months.

The certificate issued to the candidate will state whether or not he may be re-examined locally.

  1. Special Examination-Referred cases.– In the case of a candidate who referred for further examination the Chief Examiner will make arrangements for a special examination for which no additional fee will be charged.
  2. Special Examination-Appeal cases.– A candidate who is adjudged to have failed in the local lantern test may appeal for an examination by a special body of examiners for a decision, He will be required to pay a special fee of Rs.32 which will be returned to him if he is declared to have passed the special examination.
  3. Examination Board.– The special and appeal examinations will be conducted by the Chief Examiner of Masters and Mates or his Deputy together with a specialist adviser on eyesight.
  4. Punctual attendance at special and appeal examinations.– Candidates who are referred for a special examination or appeal from the result of the local tests are notified by the Chief Examiner of the time at which they should attend for special examination and are expected to inform the Chief Examiner whether or not they will be able to attend at that time. Any candidate who, after informing the Chief Examiner that he will attend, fails to appear at the lime appointed, will be liable to have his examination postponed indefinitely and also, if an appeal candidates, will forfeit the appeal fee of Rs. 32 and will be required to deposit a further fee of the same amount before further arrangements can be made for his special examination.
  5. Final Appeals.– Where, during the course of a special examination, a candidate who has appealed or has been referred, is found to have a permanent defect in his eyesight such as to render him unfil for a sea career, he will be finally rejected and will not be allowed to be examined again in the sight tests on any further occasion. This, however, is subject to this proviso that if the candidate is still dissatisfied, it will be open to him, if he so desires, to present him-self for a second special examination on payment of a fee of rupees seventry-five, provided that he brings with him a friend to witness the examination who may be an ophthalmic surgeon. It will be conducted by the Chief Examiner of masters and Mates or his Deputy together with a specialist adviser on eyesight. The special fee of seventy-five will not be returnable, unless in special circumstances, the Ministry of Transport see fit to refund it. In no case will this fee be refunded to candidates under 14 years of age.
  6. Candidate not finally rejected at special examination.– In certain cases a candidate may not be finally rejected at a first special examination. Such candidates will have the option of taking a second special examination as indicated in paragraph 15 or of being specially re-examined after an interval of three months on payment of a fee of rupees thirty-two. If they are successful the appeal fee of rupees thirty-two will be refunded.

APPENDIX D

Examination In Signalling

The examination in Signalling will in all cases begin with an examination in the International Code, including Morse Flashing and Semaphore.

Morse Flashing and Semaphore. – Speeds and Tests for Voluntary Examination. – Candidates for the voluntary examination in signalling will be required to attain a minimum speed of 12 words a minute in Semaphore, and 10 words a minute in Morse Flashing; the average length of a word is taken as 5 letters.

The Morse Flashing test will consist of a Test message, followed by a Spelling message of 25 words, and the Semaphore test will consist of a Spelling message of 50 words.

In the examination in Morse Flashing, the candidate should be first required to make a Test message, followed by a Spelling message of 25 words. The Examiner should then make a Test message, followed by a Spelling message of 25 words to be read by the candidate.

The same procedure will be observed in the Semaphore test, except that, as a Test message is not given, the candidate will be required to make a Spelling message of 50 words, and then to read a message of 50 words made by the Examiner.

Speeds and Tests for other Candidates. – Other candidates will be required to attain a speed of 8 words a minute in Semaphore and 6 words a minute in Morse Flashing the average length of a word is taken as 5 letters.

The Morse Flashing test will consist of a Test Card and spelling message of 10 words, and the Semaphore test of a Spelling message of 25 words.

Method of Signalling. – The Semaphore message will be made by hand flags.

The spelling message is left to the discretion of the examiner, and may be a passage from any book or newspaper in English. When the passage contains figures and the candidate does not choose to spell them out, the examiner should see that the proper signs are made before and after the figures.

The message as read by the candidate should be taken down by another candidate where possible, otherwise by a clerk, or other persons according as the examiner may deem expedient.

Candidate should be thoroughly tested in the various signs and the procedure of calling up, sending and answering a signal, and this course should always be strictly adhered to.

Marks. – In the Morse Flashing examination, marks will be allotted for the Test Message in the proportion of 2/3 of a mark for each correct letter or numeral, and for the Spelling message 5 marks for each correct word or group of figures. In the Semaphore examination, 4 marks will be allotted for each correct word.

Every candidate must, for a pass, gain an aggregate of at least 90 per cent. of the maximum marks allotted both in making and reading in each method, i.e., Morse Flashing and Semaphore.

Note. – The International Code of Signals ” Volume I Visual and sound Signalling, and Volume II Radio Signalling, may be obtained from the Principal booksellers at the various ports, or directly from H. M. Stationery Office, York House, Kingsway, London W.C.2.

The attention of candidates is drawn to the fact that facilities are available at the Nautical and Engineering College, Bombay for instruction in signalling.

In the United Kingdom, signal schools have been established at London, Liverpool, South Shields, Glassgow Hull, Southampton and Cardiff where candidates for Certificates of Competency can obtain instruction in Signalling free of charge.

APPENDIX E

Regulations For Preventing Collision At Sea (In Force From January 1954)

PART A

Preliminary And Definitions

Rule 1

(a) These Rules shall be followed by all vessels and seaplanes upon the high seas and in all waters connected therewith navigable by seagoing vessels, except as provided in rule 30. Where, as a result of their special construction, it is not possible for seaplanes to comply fully with the provisions of Rules specifying the carrying of lights and shapes, these provisions shall be followed as closely as circumstances permit.

(b) The Rules concerning lights shall be complied with in all weathers from sunset to sunrise, and during such times no other lights shall be exhibited, except such lights as cannot be mistaken for the prescribed lights or impair their visibility or distinctive character, or interfere with the keeping of a proper lookout.

(c) In the following Rules, except where the context otherwise requires:

(i) the word “vessel” includes every description of water craft, other than a seaplane on the water, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water;

(ii) the word “seaplane” includes a flying boat and any other aircraft designed to manoeuvre on the water;

(iii) the term “power-driven vessel” means any vessel propelled by machinery;

(iv) every power-driven vessel which is under sail and not under power is to be considered a sailing vessel, and every vessel under power, whether under sail or not, is to be considered a power-driven vessel;

(v) a vessel or seaplane on the water is “under way” when she is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore, or a ground;

(vi) the term “height above the hull” means height above the upper-most continuous deck;

(vii) the length and breadth of a vessel shall be deemed to be the length and breadth appearing in her certificate of registry;

(viii) the length and span of a seaplane shall be its maximum length and span as shown in its certificate of airworthiness, or as determined by measurement in the absence of such certificate;

(ix) the word “visible” when applied to lights, means visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere;

(x) the term “short blast” means a blast of about one second’s duration;

(xi) the term “prolonged blast” means a blast of from four to six seconds duration;

(xii) the word “whistle” means whistle or siren;

(xiii) the word “tons” means gross tons.

PART B

Lights and Shapes

Rule 2

(a) A power-driven vessel when under way shall carry:

(i) On or in front of the foremast, or if a vessel without a foremast then in the forepart of the vessel, a bright white light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 20 points of the compass (225 degrees), so fixed as to show the light/10 points (112 1/2 degrees) on each side of the vessel, that is, from right ahead to 2 points (22 1/2 degrees) abaft the beam on eithcr side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 5 miles.

(ii) Either forward of or abaft the white light mentioned in sub-section(i) a second white light similar in construction and character to that light. Vessels of less than 150 feet in length, and vessels engaged in towing, shall not be required to carry this second white light but may do so.

(iii) These two white lights shall be so placed in line with and over the keel that one shall be at least 15 feet higher than the other and in such a position that the lower light shall be forward of the upper one. The horizontal distance between the two white lights shall be at least three times the vertical distance. The lower of these two white lights or, if only one is carried, then that light, shall be placed at a height above the hull of not less than 20 feet, and, if the breadth of the vessel exceeds 20 feet, then at a height above the hull not less than such breadth, so however that the light need not be placed at a greater height above the hull than 40 feet. In all circumstances the light or lights, as the case may be, shall be so placed as to be clear of and above all other lights and obstructing superstructures.

(iv) On the starboard side a green light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of horizon of 10 points of the compass (112 1/2 degrees), so fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 2 points (22 1/2 degrees) abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 2 miles.

(v) on the port side a red light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an are of the horizon of 10 points of the compass (112 1/2 degrees), so fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 2 points (22 1/2 degrees) abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 2 miles.

(vi) The said green and red sidelights shall be fitted with inboard screens projecting at least 3 feet forward from the light, so as to prevent these light lights from being seen across the bows.

(b) A seaplane under way on the water shall carry:

(i) In the forepart amidships where it can best be seen a bright white light, so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 220 degrees of the compass, so fixed as to show the light 110 degrees on each side of the seaplane, namely, from right ahead to 20 degrees abaft the beam on either side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 3 miles.

(ii) On the right or starboard wing tip a green light, so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 110 degrees of the compass, so fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 20 degrees abaft the beam on the starboard side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 2 miles.

(iii) On the left or port wing tip a red light, so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 110 degrees of the compass so fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 20 degrees abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 2 miles.

Rule 3

(a) A power-driven vessel when towing or pushing another vessel or seaplane shall, in addition to her sidelights, carry two bright white lights in a vertical line one over the other not less than 6 feet apart, and when towing more than one vessel shall carry an additional bright white light 6 feet above or below such lights, if the length of the two, measuring from the stern of the towing vessel to the stern of the last vessel or seaplane towed, exceeds 600 feet. Each of these lights shall be of the same construction and character and one of them shall be carried in the same position as the white light mentioned in rule 2(a) (i), except the additional light, which shall be carried at a height of not less than 14 feet above the hull. In a vessel with a single mast, such lights may be carried on the mast.

(b) The towing vessel shall also either the stern light specified in rule 10 or in lieu of that light a small white light abaft the funnel or aftermast for the tow to steer by, but such light shall not be visible forward of the beam. The carriage of the white light specified in rule 2 (a) (ii), is optional.

(c) A seaplane on the water, when towing one or more seaplanes or vessels, shall carry the lights prescribed in Rule 2(b) (i); and (iii); and, in addition, she shall carry a second white light of the same construction and character as the white light mentioned in rule 2 (b) (i), and in a vertical line at least 6 feet above or below such light.

Rule 4

(a) A vessel which is not under command shall carry, where they can best be seen, and, if a power-driven vessel, in lieu of the lights required by rule 2 (a) (i) and (ii), two red lights in a vertical line one over the other not less than 6 feet apart, and of such a character as to be visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least 2 miles. By day, she shall carry in a vertical line one over the other not less than 6 feet apart where they can best be seen, two black balls or shapes each not less than 2 feet in diameter.

(b) A seaplane on the water which is not under command may carry, where they can best be seen, two red lights in a vertical line, one over the other, not less than 3 feet apart, and of such a character as to be visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least 2 miles, and may by day carry in a vertical line one over the other not less than 3 feet apart, where they can best be seen, two black balls or shapes, each not less than 2 feet in diameter.

(c) A vessel engaged in laying or in picking up a submarine cable or navigation mark, or vessel engaged in surveying or underwater operations when from the nature of her work she is unable to get out of the way of approaching vessels, shall carry, in lieu of the lights specified in rule 2(a) (i) and (ii), three lights in a vertical line one over the other not less than 6 feet apart. The highest and lowest of these lights shall be red, and the middle light shall be white, and they shall be of such a character as to be visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least 2 miles. By day, she shall carry in a vertical line one over the other not less than 6 feet apart, where they can best be seen, three shapes each not less than 2 feet in diameter, of which the highest and lowest shall be globular in shape and red in colour, and the middle one diamond in shape and white.

(d) The vessels and seaplanes referred to in this rule, when not making way through the water, shall not carry the coloured sidelights, but when making way they shall carry them.

(e) The lights and shapes required to be shown by this rule are to be taken by other vessels and seaplanes as signals that the vessel or seaplane showing them is not under command and cannot, therefore, get out of the way.

(f) These signals are not signals of vessels in distress and requiring assistance. Such signals are contained in rule 31.

Rule 5

(a) A sailing vessel under way and any vessel or seaplane being towed shall carry the same lights as are prescribed by rule 2 for a power-driven vessel on a seaplane under way, respectively, with the exception of the white lights specified therein, which they shall never carry. They shall also carry stern lights as specified in rule 10, provided that vessels tgowed, except the last vessel of tow, may carry, in lieu of such stern light, a small white light as specified in rule 3(b).

(b) A vessel being pushed ahead shall carry, at the forward end, on the starboard side a green light and on the port side a red light, which shall have the same characteristics as the lights described in rule 2(a) (iv) and (v) and shall be screened as provided in rule 2 (a) (vi), provided that any number of vessels pushed ahead in a group shall be lighted as one vessel.

Rule 6

(a) In small vessels, when it is not possible on account of bad weather or other sufficient cause to fix the green and red sidelights, these lights shall be kept at hand ready for immediate use, and shall, on the approach of or to other vessels, be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side nor the red light on the starboard side, nor if practicable, more than 2 points (221/2 degrees) abaft the beam on their respective sides.

(b) To make the use of these portable lights more certain and easy, the lanterns containing them shall each be painted outside with the colour of the lights they respectively contain, and shall be provided with proper screens.

Rule 7

Power-driven vessels of less than 40 tons, vessels under oars or sails of less than 20 tons, and rowing boats, when under way shall not be required to carry the lights mentioned in Rule 2, but if they do not carry them they shall be provided with the following lights:

(a) Power-driven vessels of less than 40 tons, except as provided in Sec. (b), shall carry:

(i) In the forepart of the vessel, where it can best be seen, and at a height above the gunwale of not less than 9 feet, a bright white light constructed and fixed as prescribed in rule 2 (a) (i) and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 3 miles.

(ii) Green and red sidelights constructed and fixed as prescribed in rule 2(a) (iv) and (v), and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least I mile, or a combined lantern showing a green light and red light from right ahead to 2 point (221/2 degrees) abaft the beam on their respective sides. Such lantern shall be carried not less than 3 feet below the white light.

(b) Small power-driven boats, such as are carried by seagoing vessels, may carry the whitle light at a less height than 9 feet above the gunwale, but it shall be carried above the sidelights or the combined lantern mentioned in sub-section (a) (ii).

(c) Vessels of less than 20 tons, under oars or sails, except as provided in section (d), shall, if they do not carry the side-lights, carry where it can best be seen a lantern showing a green light on one side and a red light on the other, of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 1 mile, and so fixed that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side. Where it is not possible to fix this light, it shall be kept ready for immediate use and shall be exhibited in sufficient time to pre vent collision and so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side not the red light on the starboard side.

(d) Small rowing boats, whether under oars or sail, shall only be required to have ready at hand an electric torch or a lighted lantern showing a white light, which shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision.

(e) The vessels and boats referred to in this rule shall not be required to carry the lights or shapes prescribed in rules 4(a) and 11(e).

Rule 8

(a) (i) Sailing pilot-vessels, when engaged on their station on pilotage duty and not at anchor, shall not show the litghts prescribed for other vessels but shall carry a white light at the masthead visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least 3 miles, and shall also exhibit a flare-up light or flare-up lights at short intervals, which shal4 never exceed 10 minutes.

(ii) On the near approach of or to other vessels they shall have their sidelights lighted ready for use and shall flash or show them at short intervals, to indicate the direction in which they are heading, but the green light shall not be shown on the port side, not the red light on the starboard side.

(iii) A sailing pilot-vessel of such a class as to be obliged to go along-side of a vessel to put a pilot on board may show the white light instead of carrying it at the masthead and may, instead of the sidelights above mentioned, have at hand ready for use a lantern with a green glass on the one side and a red glass on the other to be used as prescribed above.

(b) A power-driven pilot-vessel when engaged on her station on pilotage duty and not at anchor shall, in addition to the lights and flares required for sailing pilot-vessels, carry at a distance of 8 feet below her white masthead light a red light visible all round the horizon at a distance of a least 3 miles, and also the sidelights required to be carried by vessels when under way. A bright intermittent all round white light may be used in a place of a flare.

(c) All pilot-vessels, when engaged on their stations on pilotage duty and at anchor, shall carry the lights and show the flares prescribed in sections(a) and (b), except that the sidelights shall not be shown. They shall also carry the anchor light or lights prescribed in Rule 11.

(d) All pilot-vessels, wheather at anchor or no at anchor, shall, when not engaged on their station on pilotage duty, carry the same lights as other vessels of their class and tonnage.

Rule 9

(a) Fishing vessels when not fishing shall carry the lights or shapes prescribed for similar vessels of their tonnage. When fishing they shall show only the lights or shapes prescribed by this rule, which lights or shapes, except as otherwise provided, shall be visible at a distance of at least 2 miles.

(b) Vessels fishing with trolling (towing) lines, shall show only the lights prescribed for a power-driven or sailing vessel under way as may be appropriate.

(c) Vessels fishing with nets or lines, except trolling (towing) lines, extending from the vessel not more than 500 feet horizontally into the seaway shall show, where it can best be seen, one all round white light and in addition on approaching or being approached by another vessel, shall show a second white light at least 6 feet below the first light and at a horizontal distance of at least 10 feet away from it (6 feet in small open boats) in the direction in which the outlying gear is attached. By day such vessels shall indicate their occupation by displaying a basket where it can best be seen; and if they have their gear out while at anchor, they shall, on the approach of other vessels, show the same signal in the direction from the anchor ball towards the net or gear.

(d) Vessels fishing with nets or lines, except trolling (towing) lines, extending from the vessel more than 500 feet horizontally into the seaway shall show, where they can best be seen, three white lights at least 3 feet apart in a vertical triangle visible all round the horizon. When making way through the water, such vessels shall show the proper coloured sidelights but when not making way they shall not show them. By day they shall show a basket in the forepart of the vessel as near the steam as possible not less than 10 feet above the rail; and, in addition, where it can best be seen, one black conical shape, apex upwards. If they have their gear out while at anchor they shall, on the approach of other vessels, show the basket in the direction from the anchor ball towards the net or gear.

(e) Vessels when engaged in trawling, by which is meant the dragging of a dredge net or other apparatus along or near the bottom of the sea, and not at anchor:

(i) If power-driven vessels, shall carry in the dragging of a dredge net mentioned in rule 2(a) (i) a tri-coloured lantern, so constructed and fixed as to show a white light form right ahead to 2 points (221/2 degrees) on each bow, and a green light and a red light over an arc of the horizon from 2 points (221/2 degrees) on each bow to 2 points (221/2 degrees) abaft the beam on the starboard and port sides, respectively; and not less than 6 nor more than 12 feet below the tri-coloured lantern a white light in a lantern, so constructed as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light all round the horizon. They shall also show the stern light specified in rule 10(a).

(ii) If sailing vessels, shall carry a white light in a lantern so constructed as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light all round the horizon, and shall also, on the approach of or to other vessels show, where it can best be seen, a white flare-up light in sufficient time to prevent collision.

(iii) By day, each of the foregoing vessels shall show, where it can best be seen, a basket.

(f) In addition to the lights which they are by this rule required to show vessels fishing may, if necessary, in order to attract attention of appraching vessels, show a flare-up light. They may also use working lights.

(g) Every vessel fishing, when at anchor, shall show the lights or shape specified in rule 11(a), (b) or (c); and shall, on the approach of another vessel or vessels show an additional white light at least 6 feet below the forward anchor light and at a horizontal distance of at least 10 feet away from it in the direction of the outlying gear.

(h) If a vessel when fishing becomes fast by her gear to a rock other obstruction she shall in daytime haul down the basket required by sections (c), (d) or (e) and show the signal specified in rule 11 (c). By night she shall show the light or lights specified in rule 11(a) or

(b) In fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms or any other condition similarly restricitng visibility, whether by day or by night, she shall sound the signal prescribed by rule 15(c)(v), which signal shall also be used, on the near approach of another vessel, in good visibility.

Note. – For fog signals for fishing vessels, see rule 15(c)(ix).

Rule 10

(a) A vessel when under way shall carry at her stern a white light, so constructed that it shall show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 12 points of the compass (135 degrees), so fixed as to show the light 6 pointy (671/2 degrees) from right aft on reach side of the vessel, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 2 miles. Such light shall be carried as nearly as practicable on the same level as the sidelights.

Note. – For vessels engaged is towing or being towed, see rules 3(b) and 5.

(b) In a small vessel, if it is not possible on account of bad weather or other sufficient cause for this light to be fixed, an electric torch or a lighted lantern shall be kept at hand ready for use and shall, on the approach of an overtaking vessel, be shown in sufficeint time to prevent collision.

(c) A seaplane on the water when under way shall carry on her tail a white light, so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 140 degrees of the compass, so fixed as to show the light 70 degrees from right left on each side of the seaplane, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 2 miles.

Rule 11

(a) A vessel under 150 feet in length, when at anchor, shall carry in the forepart of the vessel, where it can best be seen, a white light in a lantern so constructed as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least 2 miles.

(b) A vessel of 150 feet or upwards in length, when at anchor, shall carry in the forepart of the vessel, at a height of not less than 20 feet above the hull, one such light, and at or near the stern of the vessel and at such a height that it shall be not less than 15 feet lower than the forward light, another such light. Both these lights shall be visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least 3 miles.

(c) Between sunrise and sunset every vessel when at anchor shall carry in the forepart of the vessel, where it can best be seen, one black ball not less than 2 feet in diameter.

(d) A vessel engaged in laying or in picking up a submarine cable or navigation mark, or a vessel engaged in surveying or underwater operations, when at anchor, shall carry the lights or shapes prescribed in rule 4(c) in addition to those prescribed in the appropriate preceding sections of this rule.

(e) A vessel aground shall carry by night the light or lights prescribed in section (a) or (b) and the two red lights prescribed in rule 4(a). By day she shall carry, where they can best be seen, three black balls, each not less than 2 feet in diameter, placed in a vertical line one over the other, not less than 6 feet apart.

(f) A seaplane on the water under 150 feet in length, when at anchor, shall carry, where it can best be seen, a white light, visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least 2 miles.

(g) A seaplane on the water 150 feet or upwards in length, when at anchor shall carry, where they can best be seen, a white light forward and a white light, aft, both lights visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least 3 miles; and, in addition, if the seaplane is more than 150 feet in span, a white light on each side to indicate the maximum span, and visible, so fat as practicable, all round the horizon at a distance of I mile.

(h) A seaplane aground shall carry an anchor light or lights as prescribed in Secs.(f) and (g), and in addition may carry two red lights in vertical line, at least 3 feet apart, so placed as to be visible all round the horizon.

Rule 12

Every vessel or seaplane on the water may, if necessary in order to attract attention, in addition to the lights which she is by these rules required to carry, show a flare-up light or use a detonating or other effecient sound signal that cannot be mistaken for any signal authorised elsewhere under these rules.

Rule 13

(a) Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of any special rules made by the Government of any nation with respect to additional station and signal lights for ships of war, for vessels sailing under convey or for seaplanes on the water; or with the exhibition of recognition signal adopted by shipowners, which have been authorised by their respective Governments and duly registered and published.

(b) Whenever the Government concerned shall have determined that a naval or other military vessel or waterborne seaplane of special construction or purpose cannot comply fully with the provisions of any of these rules with respect to the number, position, range or arc of visibility or lights or shapes, without interfering with the military function of the vessel or seaplane, such vessel or seaplane shall comply with such other provisions in regard to the number, position, range or arc of visibility of lights or shapes as her Government shall have determined to be the closet possible compliance with these rules in respect of that vessel or seaplane.

Rule 14

A vessel proceeding under sail, when also being propelled by machinery, shall carry in the daytime forward, where it can best be seen, ohe black conical shape, point upwards, not less than 2 feet in diameter at its base.

Rule 15

(a) A power-driven vessel shall be provided with an efficient whistle, sounded by steam or by some substitute for steam, so placed that the sound may not be intercepted by any obstruction, and with an efficient fog-horn, to be sounded by mechanical means, and also with an efficient bell. A sailing vessel of 20 tons or upwards shall be provided with a similar fog-horn and bell.

(b) All signals prescribed by this rule for vessels under way shall be given:-

(i) by power-driven vessels on the whistle;

(ii) by sailing vessels on the fog-horn;

(iii) by vessels towed on the whistle or fog-horn.

(c) In fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms, or any other condition similarly restriciting visibility, whether by day or night, the signals prescribed in this rule shall be used as follows:

(i) A power-driven vessel making way through the water, shall sound at intervals of not more than 2 minutes a prolonged blast.

(ii) A power-driven vessel under way, but stopped and making no way through the water, shall sound at intervals of not more than 2 minutes two prolonged blasts, with an interval of about I second between them.

(iii) A sailing vessel under way shall sound, at intervals of not more than l minute, when on the starboard tack one blast, when on the port tack two blasts in succession, and when with the wind abaft the beam three blasts in succession.

(iv) A vessel when at anchor shall at intervals of not more than 1 minute ring the bell rapidly for about 5 seconds. In vesels of more than 350 feet in length the bell shall be sounded in the foreport of the vessel, and in addition these shall be sounded in the after part of the vessel, at intervals of not more than 1 minute for about 5 seconds, a gong or other instrument, the tone and sound of which cannot be confused with that of the bell. Every vessel at anchor may in addition, in accordance with rule 12, sound three blasts in succession, namely, one short, one prolonged, and one short blast, to give warning of her position and of the possibility of collision to an approaching vessel.

(v) A vessel when towing, a vessel engaged in laying or in picking up a submarine cable or navigation mark, and a vessel under way which is unable to get out of the way of an approaching vessel though being not under command or unable to manoeuvre as required by these rules shall, instead of the signals prescribed in sub-sections (i), (ii) and (iii) sound, at intervals of not more than 1 minute, three blasts, in succession, namely, one prolonged blast followed by two short blasts.

(vi) A vessel towed, or if more than one vessel is towed, only the last vessel of the tow, if manned, shall, at intervals of not more than 1 minute, sound four blasts in succession, namely, one prolonged blast followed by three short blasts. When practicable, this signal shall be made immediately after the signal made by the towing vessel.

(vii) A vessel aground shall give the signal prescribed in sub-section (iv) and shall in addition, give three separate and distinct strokes on the bell immediately before and after each such signal.

(viii) A vessel of less than 20 tons, a rowing boat, or a seaplane on the water shall not be obliged to give the above mentioned signals, but if she does not, she shall make some other efficient sound signal at intervals of not more than I minute.

(ix) A vessel when fishing, if of 20 tons or upwards, shall at intervals of not more than 1 minute, sound a blast, such blast to be followed by ringing the bell; or she may sound, in lieu of these signals, a blast consisting of a series of several alternate notes of higher and lower pitch.

Rule 16

Speed to be moderate in fog etc.

(a) Every vessel, or seaplane when taxing on the water, shall, in fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms or any other condition similarly restricting visibility go at a moderate speed, having careful regard to the existing circumstances and conditions.

(b) A power-driven vessel hearing, apparently forward of her beam, the fogsignal of a vessel the position of which is not ascertained, shall, so far as the circumstances of the case admit, stop her engines and then navigate with caution until danger of collision is over.

PART C

Steering and Sailing Rules

Preliminary

  1. In obeying and construing these rules, any action taken snotld be positive, in ample time, and with due regard to the observance of good seamanship.
  2. Risk of collision can, when circumstances permit, be ascertained by carfefully watching the compass bearing of an approaching vessel. If the bearing does not appreciably change, such risk should be deemed to exist.
  3. Mariners should bear in mind that seaplanes in the act of landing or taking off, or operating under adverse weather conditions, may be unable to change their intended action at the last moment.

Rule 17

When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as to involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the other, as follows:

(a) A vessel which is running free shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close-hauled.

(b) A vessel which is close-hauled on the port tack shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close-hauled on the starboard tack.

(c) When both are running free, with the wind on different sides, the vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the other.

(d) When both are running free, with the wind on the same side; the vessel which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward.

(e) A vessel which has the wind aft shall keep out of the way of the other vessel.

Rule 18

(a) When two power-driven vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on , so as to involve risk of collision, each shall after her course to starboard, so that each may pass on the port side of the other. This rule only applies to cases where vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve risk of collision, and does not apply to two vessels which must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of each other. The only cases to which it does apply are when each of two vessels is end on, or nearly end on, to the other; in other words, to cases in which, by day, each vessel sees the masts of the other in a line, or nearly in a line, with her own; and by night, to cases in which each vessel is in such a position as to see both the sidelights of the other. It does not apply, by day to cases in which a vessel sees another ahead crossing her own course; or, by night, to cases where the red light of one vessel is opposed to the red light of the other or where the green light of one vessel is opposed to the green light of the other or where a red light without a green light or a green light without a red light is seen ahead, or where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but ahead.

(b) For the purposes of this rule and rules 19 to 29 inclusive, except rule 20(b), a seaplane on the water shall be deemed to be a vessel, and the esxpression “power-driven vessel” shall be construed accordingly.

Rule 19

When two power-driven vessels are crossing, so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.

Rule 20

(a) When a power-driven vessel and a sailing vessel are proceeding in such direction as to involve risk of collision, except as provided in rules 24 and 26,, the power-driven vessel shall keep out of the way of the sailing vessel.

(b) A seaplane on the water shall, in general keep well clear of all vessels and avoid impeding their navigation. In circumstances, however, where risk of collision exists, she shall comply with these rules.

Rule 21

Where by any of these rules one of two vessels is to keep out the way, the other shall keep her course and speed. When, from any cause, the latter vessel finds herself so close that collision cannot be avoided by the action of the giving-way vessel alone, she also shall take such action as will best aid to avert collision (see rules 27 and 29).

Rule 22

Every vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other.

Rule 23

Every power-driven vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, on approaching her, if necessary, slacken her speed or stop or reverse.

Rules 24

(a) Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules, every vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel.

(b) Every vessel coming up with another vessel from any direction more than 2 points (22 1/2 degrees) abaft her beam, i.e. in such a position, with reference to the vessel which she is overtaking, that at night she would be unable to see either of that vessel’s sidelights, shall be deemed to be an overtaking vessel; and no subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these rules, or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally past and clear.

(c) If the overtaking vessel cannot determine with certainty whether she is forward of or abaft this direction from the other vessel, shall assume that she is an overtaking vessel and keep out of the way.

Rule 25

(a) In a narrow channel every power-driven vessel when proceeding along the course of the channel shall, when it is safe and practicable, keep to that side of the fairway or midchannel which lies on the starboard side of such vessel.

(b) Whenever a power-driven vessel is nearing a bend in a channel where a power-driven vessel approaching from the other direction cannot be seen such vessel, when she shall have arrived within one-half mile of the bend, shall give a signal by one prolonged blast of her whistle, which signal shall be answered by a similar blast given by any approaching power-driven vessel that may be within hearing around the bend. Regardless of whether an approaching vessel on the farther side of the bend, is heard, such bend, shall be rounded with alertness and caution.

Rule 26

All vessels not engaged in fishing shall, when under way, keep out of the way of any vessels fishing with nets or lines or trawls. This rule shall not give to any vessel engaged in fishing the right of obstructing a fairway used by vessels other than fishing vessels.

Rule 27

In obeying and construing these rules due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision, and to any special circumstances including the limitations of the ceaft involved, which may render a departure from the above rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger.

PART D

Miscellaneous

Rule 28

(a) When vessel are in sight of one another, a power-driven vessel underway in taking any course authorised or required by these rules, shall indicate that course by the following signals on her whistle, namely:

One short blast to mean “I am altering my course to starboard”.

Two short blast to mean “I am altering my course to port”.

Three short blasts to mean “My engines are going astern”.

(b) Whenever a power-driven vessel which under these rules, is to keep her course and speed, is in sight of another vessel and is in doubt whether sufficient action is being taken by the other vessel to avert collision, she may indicate such doubt by giving at least five short and rapid blasts on the whistle. The giving of such a signal shall not relieve a vessel of her obligations under rules 27 and 29 or any other rule, or of her duty to indicate any action taken under these rules by giving the appropriate sound signals laid down in this rule.

(c) Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of any special rules made by the Government of any nation with respect to the use of additional whistle signals between ships of war of vessel sailing under convoy.

Rule 29

Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner, master or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper look-out, or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.

Rule 30

Reservation of Rules for Harbours and Inland Navigation

Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of a special rule duly made by local authority relative to the navigation of any harbour, river, lake, or inland water, including a reserved seaplane area.

Rule 31

When a vessel or seaplane on the water is in distress and requires assistance from other vessels or from the shore, the following shall be the signals to be used or displayed by her, either together or separately, namely:

(a) A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute.

(b) A continuous sounding with any fog-signal apparatus.

(c) Rockets or shells, throwing red stars fired one at a time at short intervals.

(d) A signal made by radio-telegraphy or by any other signalling method consisting of the group…….. in the Morse Code.

(e) A signal sent by radio-telephony consisting of the spoken word “Mayday”.

(f) The International Code Signal of distress indicated by N.C.

(g) A signal consisting of a square flag having above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball.

(h) Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel, etc.)

(i) A rocket parachute flare showing a red light.

The use of any of the above signals, except for the purpose of indicating that a vessel or a seaplane is in distress, and the use of any signals which may be confused with any of the above signals, is prohibited.

Note. – A radio signal has been provided for use by vessels in distress for the purpose of actuating the auto-alarms of other vessels and thus securing attention to distress calls or messages. The signal consists of a series of twelve dashed sent in 1 minute, the duration of each dash being 4 seconds, and the duration of the interval between two consecutive dashes 1 second.

Rule 32

All orders to helmsmen shall be given in the following sense : right rudder or starboard to mean “put the vessel’s rudder to starboard”; left rudder or port to mean “put the vessel’s rudder to port”.

APPENDIX F

Pilot Signals

The following signals, when used or displayed together or separately, shall be deemed to be signals for a pilot.

In the daytime.

  1. The International Code Signal G signifying “I require a pilot”.
  2. The International Code Signal PT signifying “I require a pilot”.
  3. The Pilot Jack hoisted at the force.

At night.

1.The pyrotechnique light, commonly known as a blue light, every fifteen minutes.

  1. A bright white light, flashed or shown at short or frequent intervals, just above the bulwarks for about a minute at a time.
  2. The International Code Signal PT by flashing.

If a master of a vessel uses or displays, or causes or permits any person under his authority to use or display, any of the pilot signals for any other purpose than that of summoning a pilot, or uses or causes or permits any person under his authority to use any other signal for a pilot, he shall for each offence be liable to a fine not exceeding twenty pounds.

APPENDIX G

Sea Service Required To Qualify For Examination For Certificates Of Competency

The following is, a condensed statement of the sea service required to qualify in each of the various grades of Certificates of Competency. Where service as an officer is required it is shown in tabular form. The letter F is used as denoting foreign-going and H as denoting home trade: thus, 1 1/2 in the first column of the Table showing the officer’s service for as First Mate’s Certificate means 1 1/2 H years service in foreign-going ships: Mate H in the last column means Mate of a home trade ship; and so on.

A candidate for sailing ship endorsement must show that at least 12 months of his service has been spent in square rigged sailing ships.

Certificate For Foreign-Going Ships

Second Mate (Foreign-going)

Minimum age 20 years.

Minimum sea service 4F or 6H.,

No officer’s service required.

First Mate(Foreign-going)

Minimum age, 21½ years.

Minimum sea service, 5½ For 8¼ H.

Officer’s service as follows :

Years Lowest Capacity Lowest certificate required
1 ½ F Third of 3rd warchkeeping officers 2nd Mate F.
or
2 ¼ H First Mate 2nd Mate F.

Note. – In certain circumstances service as second or third Mate in the Home Trade may be accepted (see rule 38).

Master (Foreign-going)

Minimum age, 23 years.

Minimum sea service, 7F.or 10½ H.

Officer’s service as follows:

Years Lowest Capacity Lowest certificate required
1 ½ F First watch-keeping officer (next in seniority to master) 1st Mate F.
or
1 ¾ F First watch-keeping officer (not next in seniority to Master) 1st Mate F.
or
1/4h First Mate 1st Mate F.
or
1 ¾ Second of 2 watch-keeping officer 1 Mate F.
or
2F Second or Third of 3 or more watch keeping officers 1st Mate F.
or
3H Master 2nd Mate F. or Master H. for one year of such service

Note. – In certain circumstances services as Second or Third Mate in the Home Trade may be accepted (See rule 38).

Certificates, For Home Trade Ships

The service required for these certificates may have been performed either in Home Trade or in foreign-going ships.

Mate (Home Trade),

Minimum age, 20 years. Minimum sea service 4 years. No officer’s service required. Master(Home Trade)

Minimum age, 23 years.

Minimum sea service 4 years.

No officer’s service as required.

Master (Home Trade)

Minimum age, 23 years.

Minimum sea service 5 years.

Officer’s service as follows:

Years Lowest Capacity Lowest certificate required
1 H First Mate Mate H. or 2nd Mate F
or
1 ¼ h 2nd Mate in-charge of watch. Ditto.
or
1 ½ F or 2 ½ H 3rd Mate in charge of watch Ditto.

APPENDIX H

Specimen Certificate Of Watch-Keeping Service

For a First Mate’s or Master’ Certificate

This is to certify that …………………….. has served on the s.s……………from ……………… to ………………… in the capacity of (1st), (2nd), (3rd) Watch-keeping officer. During this time ……………………. was an officer in (Full) (effective) charge of a watch for eight hours out of every twenty-four hours at sea, except as stated below:

Watches were not doubled at any time during the voyage.

Watches were doubled between the following dates and at no other times………………… During this time server as the (Senior)/(Junior) of two Bridge-keeping officers.

An entry to this effect has been made in the Mate’s log.

Signature of Master

APPENDIX I

Approved Training Ships Qualifying For Remission Of Sea Service Under Rules 51.

(1) T.S. Rajendra Full time spent on board, subject to a maximum of 12 months.
(2) T.S. Mercury Half time spent on board subject to a maximum of 12 months.
(3) H.M.S.Worcesto
(4) H.M.S. Conway

APPENDIX J

Orders In Council Providing That Commonwealth And Colonial Certificates Of Competency As Master Or Mate Have The Same Force As Those Granted By The Minister Of Transport

Note. – With the exception of those made after 1906 all of the Orders in Council enumerated below were consolidated and superseded by an Order in Council dated 9th May, 1891, which as subsequently amended by an Order in Council of 22nd October, 1906, and by Orders of the October, 1923, and 11th August, 1931, relating to Australia, remains in force.

Certificates
Territory By whom granted in Territory Description Date of Original Order in Council Date from which Order in Council takes effect
Victoria Marine Board Master; 1st Mate; only Mate; 2nd Mate 30 Mar. 1871 4 Jan., 1870
Canada The Minister of Marine and Fisheries Master; 1st Mate; only Mate; 2nd Mate 19 Aug. 1871 19 Aug, 1871
New Zealand Marine Deptt. Master; 1st Mate;only Mate; 2nd Mate. 9 Aug. 1872 1 May, 1872
New South Wales Department of Navigation Master; 1st Mate; 2nd Mate. 30 Aug., 1873 18th June 1872
South Australia Marine Board Master; 1st Mate; only 12th May, 1874 12th May, 1874
Tasmania Governor Master; 1st Mate; Only Mate; 2nd Mate. 12th Feb., 1876 17th Apr., 1876.
Bengal Lieutenant Governor Master; 1st Mate; Only Mate; 2nd Mate 27th June, 1876 27th June, 1876.
New Foundland Governor Master; 1st Mate; Only Mate; 2nd Mate. 14th May, 1877 14th May, 1877
Bombay Governor Master; 1st Mate; Only Mate; 2nd Mate. 11th July, 1877 11th Junly, 1877
Queensland Marine Board Master; 1st Mate; Only Mate; 2nd Mate. 26 Mar., 1878 1st Oct., 1877
Australia Department of Trade and Customs Master; 1st Mate; 2nd Mate., 11 Oct., 1923 1st Oct., 1923
South Africa Department of Customs and Excise. Master; 1st Mate Only Mate; 2nd Mate. 11 Aug., 1931 1st July, 1928
India Department of Commerce Master; 1st Mate;2nd Mate. 17 Dec., 1931 1st Apr., 1929
Hong Kong Governor Master; 1st Mate; 31 Dec., 1883 1st Jan., 1884
Straits Settlement Government of Singapore Master; 1st Mate; 2nd Mate. 1 May 1890 1st June 1890
Republic of Department of Master; 1st Mate; 13th May, 1954 27th May, 1954
Ireland Industry and Commerce 2nd Mate, Home-Trade Passenger-ship; Master; Mate.

Note. – The Orders in Council giving Imperial validity to certificates of competency issued in Malta and Mauritius were revoked by an Order in Council dated 18th August, 1916.

APPENDIX K

Specimen Examination Papers

The following are specimen sets of Examination papers for all grades of Foreign-going and Home Trade Certificates of Competency.

The following terms when used in these papers have the meanings shown:

(a) “D. R. Position” is that obtained by allowing for courses and distances only.

(b) “Estimated position (E.P.)” is that obtained by allowing for courses and distances and for leeway and current, if any.

(c) “Chosen position” is a position used for calculating an intercept of a heavenly body.

(d) “Intercept terminal point” is the point on the position line at the end of the intercept.

(e) “Sextant altitude” is that read of a particular sextant.

(f) “Observed altitude” is the sextant altitude corrected for index error, if any.

All courses and bearings are given in 360° notation with letters C., M., T., for compass, magnetic and true respectively.

Specimen Set Of Papers For Second Mate (Foreign-Going)

General Ship Knowledge

Paper 1 (3 Hours)

  1. A class 1 A wooden lifeboat measures 26′.3 x 7′.6 x 3’2. Find the maximum number of persons she may be certified to carry.
  2. The following cargo is stowed in No. 1. L.H. From the information given; find the total space occupied by it and also its dead-weight in tons.

(i) 300 tons of machinery in cases at 40 cu. ft, per ton.

(ii) 57 cases of motor cars, 12’x 7′ x 4′.d each and stowage factor 201 cu. ft. per ton.

(iii) 200 rolls of coir matting each roll measuring length 40″, diameter 32″, stowage factor 97 cu. per ton.

  1. (a) Draw a sketch of a common type of cowl ventilator fitted on board a ship to ventilate a lower hold as well as a Tween Deck.

(b) Show in the above sketch how the wind is circulated when the ventilator is (i) on the wind (ii) off the wind.

  1. Define the following terms:

(i) Centre of Gravity (ii) Centre of Buoyancey (iii) Meta-centre.

  1. Describe fully the procedure for making the oil tanks in a tanker gas free.
  2. Describe briefly :

(i) Breast-Hook; (ii) Blank Flange; (iii) Deadwood; (iv) Cofferdam; (v) Safety lamp.

  1. What general precautions would you take when loading a cargo of coal ?
  2. How would you stow a cargo of tram lines for a sea voyage from America to India?

Mathematics

Paper 2 (2 hours)

Twenty-five marks are allowed to each question and six questions only a{c to be answered.

  1. Solve the following equation

6x² – 34x + 44=0.

  1. The dimensions of a block of metal are 1.237; 0.659; 0.484 metres respectively, and the weight of a cubic centimetre is 8.465 grams. Find the weight of the block in kilograms.

Use Logarithms to the base 10.

  1. In a plane triangle ABC, angle 54°, angle A=78°. If the bisector of angle C cuts AB at X, show that CA = CX.
  2. Prove:
  3. In the spherical triangle ABC, angle A= 85°, angle B=90°, angle C=85°. Find the hypotenuse.
  4. Draw a graph for the equation Sin A + Cos A =Y, when A=0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50° and 60°. Find the value of A when Y is maximum.
  5. Calculate the diameter of a solid ball of cast iron whose weight is 90 lbs. Cast iron weight 0.26 lbs. per cubic inch.

PRACTICAL NAVIGATION

Paper 3 (3 hours)

  1. From the following particulars of an observation of the sun’s upper limb, bear the meridian, required the direction of the position line and the latitude in which it crosses the D. R. Longitude:

Date at ship 8th January, 1952, D. R. position 30° 10′ N., 178°56’E., sextant altitude 37°31′ I.E. Nil, height of eye 21 feet. Chronometer time ooh. oom. l2s. Error on G.M.T. 10 Pm, 12s. fast.

  1. At about 0924 hours on 30th August, 1952, at ship in D.R. position 13°1 I’N.,47° 10’E, the sextant altitude of the sun’s lower limb was 53° 34′, I E, 2′ off the arc. Height of eye 56 feet. Chronometer time 06h. 24m. 40s. Error on G.M.T. OOm 19s. fast. Vessel then steamed 078°T. at 16 knots to apparent noon, when observed meridian altitude of the sun’s lower limb was 85°37/.5. Required the portion of the ship at noon.
  2. On the morning of 22nd March, 1952, at ship in Longitude 55°52’E., the sextant meridian altutude of star R SALHAGUE (46) was 75°43′.5 N.I.E. 2′ on the arc. Height of eye 30 ft. Find the Latitude.
  3. On the morning of 5th April, 1952, is D.R. 07° 46’E., the bearing of star FO MALHAUT (56) was 129°C. Chronometer time 11° 48’m 40s, chronometer error 02m 14s slow on G.M.T. Find the true bearing of the star, the error of the compass and the deviation. Variation 4°W.
  4. A vessel sailed from a position in latitude 37°17’S., on a course of 231°T., and changed her longitude by 17°. Find by Morecator’s sailing the latitude reached and the distance sailed.

Chart Work And Pilotage

Paper 4 (2 hours-excluding oral questions)

Chart No. 1577 Western approaches to the Firth of Clyde.

Deviation Card No. 5, Variation 14°W, and Speed 12 knots throughout.

  1. Find the course to steer by compass and also the distances on this course, from a position with the Rathlin 0′ Birne I. Lt. Ho. bearing 071°T., distant 8 miles, to a position with Tory I. Lt. Ho. bearing 180°T. Distant miles.
  2. Find the course to steer by compass from a position with Tory I. Lt.. Ho. bearing 126°T., distant 7 miles to a position in latitude 55°53.4N., on the eastern limit of Orsay light, allowing for a current setting 015°T., at 1.5 knots. Aso find the time it will take the ship to cover the distance between these two positions.
  3. While proceeding on 086°C., Dubh Artach (47) Lt. bore 074°C., and after steaming for 2 hours on this course it bore 329°C. Find the position of the ship at the time of taking the 2nd bearing if a current set 214°T., at 1.5 knots during the intervels.
  4. Using the following horizontal angles find the latitude and longitude of the ship: Craming Head Lt. Ho. 56° Killantriangham Lt. Ho. 63° Corsewall Pt. Lt. Ho. (Station Pointer may be used).
  5. Find the height of tide at 0010 Burma Standard Time on 7th March, 1952 at Mergui.
  6. Oral questions by the Examiner.

Principles Of Navigation

Paper 5 (2 hours)

Twenty-five marks are allotted to each question and six questions only are to be answered of which three must be those in Sec. A.

Section A

  1. (a) Explain the difference between theoretical and visible sunsets.

(b) Find the G.M.T. of theoretical sunrise in 50°00’N., 45°00’W. on 28th August, 1952.

  1. Define.– (a) Eliptic, (b) Right ascension of a heavenly body, and (c) 1st point of Aries. Illustrate your answer by a diagram.
  2. What do you understand by (a) Plane sailing (b) Middle latitude sailing and (c) Great circle sailing ?

Section B

  1. October, 27th 1952, at ship time by chronometer for an observation of celestial body was 27d, 04 ho. 47m. 51 s. which was om. 54s. fast on noon G.M.T. on 29th May, 1952, and was 30s. slow on noon G.M.T. on 16th July, 1952. Required the G.M.T. for the observation on 27th October, 1952.
  2. Explain fully what is meant by “Equation of Time”.
  3. Give a brief description of the following (a) Date line, (b) Lunation, (c) Paralax, (d) Vertex.
  4. Describe the principle of a Mercator’s chart.

ENGLISH

Paper 6 (1 1/2 h hours)

Candidates are expected to write in clear and grammatical English paying due attention to spelling, legibility and neatness.

Subject:- An essay on

“Port facilities to a deck officer obtaining in any major port your know of.

or

`Advantages and/or disadvantages of Navigation at School authorities conducting Ministry of Transport examination for certificates of competency.

Specimen Set Of Examination Paper For First Mate (Foreign-Going) Practical Navigation

Paper 1 (3 hours)

  1. Find the S.M.T. of Meridian Passage of the Moon, in 36° 15’E. on 13th August, 1952.
  2. 19th March, 1952, ship in D.R. position 19°40’n., 89°45’E., morning twilight, Chron. Time 23h. 56m 40s., error on G.M.T. olm. 20s. slow, sextant altitude of SHAULA (45) near the meridian was 33°25′.IE 1′.5 on the arc. Height of eye 45 ft. Find the direction of the position line and the latitude in which it crosses the D.R. Long.
  3. 20th January 1952, D.R. Position, 29°15’N., 136°27’E., A.M. at ship following observations were taken. Height of eye 35 feet, obs. alt. of Moon’s L.L. 30°02′. Chron Time 23h. 14m 40s. Error o 1 in. slow on G.M.T. Obs. Alt of Sun’s L.L. 15°43′. Chron Time 23h. 15m. I Os. Error 01 m. slow on G.M.T. Find the ship’s position.
  4. Find the Great Circle distance, Initial and Final Courses from “A” to “B” and the Latitude and Longitude of the vertex

“A” 38°36’N 126°27’W

“B” 14°47’N. 147°54’E.

  1. 10th May, 1952, in 39°00’s. 139°00’E., the sun rose bearing 049°C. Find the deviation of the direction of the Ship’s head if the variation was 16°E.

Chartwork And Pilotage

Paper 2 (2 hours-excluding chart orals)

Chart No. 2525 Hokianga to Tutukaka

Deviation Card No. 1, Variation 16E., throughout

  1. Estimated position of a ship was 34°28S., 174°23’E. An observation of a heavenly body was worked from a chosen position in 34°25’S., 174°15E., and the intercept and the azimuth were ascertained as 5′.5 towards and 080°T., respectively; and at the same time wireless bearing of Cape Reinga Station was 265°T.

Find the ship’s position and the compass course to steer so as to pass 5 miles off Murinotu Lt. Ho. (326 ft.).

  1. From a position with Tutukaka Hr. Lt. Ho. bearing 270°T., and subtending a vertical extant angle of 53’40”, find the compass course, and distance on each course to a position so as to raise Murinotu Lt. 30° on the port bow, altering course when Cape Brett Lt. Ho. bears 276°T., distant 5 miles. Height of eye 40 feet.

3.A ship in Lat. 34° 36°’s., observed Cape Maria Van Diemen Lt. Ho. in line with Cape Reinga Lt. Ho. Find the ship’s position.

From this position find the compass course to steer so as to pass 7 miles off Cape Reinga Lt. Ho. allowing for a current setting 250° T., at 2 knots. Ship’s speed 10 knots.

4.While proceeding on 244°C., Murimotu light just became obscured and at the same time Cape Reinga light bore 215°C.. Find the ship’s position.

  1. Find the standard times and heights of High and Low water at Reveley Island (A.T.T. 4458) on 14th March, 1952.
  2. Oral questions by the examiner.

Ship Construction And Stability

Paper 3 (3 hours)

  1. The semi-ordinates of a ship’s waterplane, twenty feet apart, commencing from the stem are :-0, 10, 13.2, 14.3, 14.1, 11.5, 6, and 3.2 feet respectively. Find the T.P.I.
  2. A vessel 410 ft. long is floating in salt water at a draught of 24 ft. 5 in forward and 26 ft. 3 in aft. T.P.I. 48, M.C.T. 1″ = 1000. C.F. amidships, C.G. of No. 1 hold 170 ft. forward of C.F., C.G. of No. 4 hold 100 ft. abaft C. F. Find the amount of cargo to be discharged from No. 1 and No. 4 holds to bring the vessel on an even keel draught of 24 ft. 6 in.
  3. Sketch a ship’s collision bulkhead illustrating fully the details of plating stiffening and ‘hell connections.
  4. State the danger of “Free Surface” of liquids in a vessel. Describe the arrangements made to counteract its effect in bullk oil carriers.
  5. How are the following tested for watertightness:-

(a) Double Bottom tanks.

(b) Collision Bulkhead.

(c) Hold Bulkheads and decks.

  1. Describe the arrangements in the construction of a ship to withstand the stresses caused by pitching and pounding.
  2. Define Centre of Gravity, Transverse Metacentre and Initial Transverse Metacentric Height.

Meteorology

(Paper 4 (2 hours)

  1. Code the following, using the International Meteorological Code provided:-

(a) Station report: From Colombo, Ceylon. Dew point temperature 75°F., sky completely covered, direction of wind 230°T, force 8, visibility 5 nautical miles, present weather : state of sky on the whole unchanged, past weather : mainly overcast, barometer-1007.8 millibars, dry bulb temperature WE

(b) Ship Report: Position Lat. 19°36’N., Long. 86°18’E., G.M.T. 00.00 hrs., Thursday, 5/8 of sky covered, direction of wind 240°T, force 6 visibility 4 nautical miles, present weather : clouds generally dissolving or becoming less developed, past weather : variable sky, baromerter-970 millibars, dry bulb temperature 84°F.

  1. Describe the wind, weather and Barometric changes you would experience if situated to the southward of the path of a depression in the Northern Hemisphere.
  2. Describe briefly Orographic cloud and Rain and Fohn Wind.
  3. Give a general description of the currents in the Strait of Gibralter and in the Mediteranean Sea.
  4. Describe a Hygrometer and state what information can be derived from it.

Ship Maintenance, Routine And Cargo Work

Paper 5 (3 hours)

  1. A vessel of 3,980 tons Deadweight has on board 60 tons of stores and 430 tons of

fuel and water. Her hold capacities are as follows:

No. 1 52,550 c.ft.

No. 2 56,780 c.ft.

No. 3 53,040 c.ft.

No. 4 48,900 c.ft.

She is to be loaded with cased goods stowing at 90 and marble blocks stowing at 20 cu. ft. per ton. state the amount of cargo of each commodity you would load in each hold so as to fill the vessel and bring her down to her marks.

N.B. – The above vessel when full and completely loaded with an homogeneous cargo is in satisfactory trim.

  1. From the following particulars :

Samson post 30 feet high, derrick 32 feet long, span 20 feet long made fast to the head of the Samson post. The heel of the derrick is stepped 5 feet above the deck.

Find the thrust on the derrick and the tension on the span when a weight of 10 tons is suspended from the derrick head. Ignore weight of derrick and gear.

  1. A ling of cargo 10 tons in weight is to be lifted on two hooks by two three fold purchases rove to disadvantage. Calculate the size or rope, to be used, S.W.L. = C² /18°
  2. (a) How would you treat a steel deck before laying wood sheathing ?

(b) Describe how you would recaulk a leaking wood deck.

  1. What particulars would you give when indenting for the following:

Shackles, mooring wire, wire for mast stays, cargo gin blocks and wires for lifeboat falls.

  1. Your vessel is to load 6,000 tons of general cargo after discharging a full cargo of cement. Give the details of the work which should be carried out before commencing to load.
  2. Define the term “Timber Deck Cargo”. How would you secure a load of timber on deck ?
  3. What routine inspection and care are necessary for the maintenance of a ship’s steering gear in an efficient condition ?

Elementary Magnetism, Electricity And Gyro Compass

Paper 6 (2 hours)

Each question carries 25 marks

  1. Explain with the aid of diagrams the relationship between the earth’s magnetism, variation and dip.
  2. What effect will a disturbing force have on a magnetic compass-

(a) near the Poles ?

(b) on the Equator ?

Give the reasons for your answers.

  1. What is the relationship between current, resistance and the e.m.f.? The terminal of a cell of e.m.f. 1.5 volts are joined together by a wire which has resistance of 1 ohm. Calculate the current in the circuit when a resistance of 2 ohms, is joined in series with the wire. Neglect the internal resistance of the cell.
  2. With the aid of diagrams explain the principle of a dynamo.
  3. Describe briefly the following:

Power, Inductance, Capacitor and Fuse.

  1. State briefly how a free gyroscope may be converted into a North seeking Instrument, on the’ earch, at the equator.

Specimen Set Of Examination Papers For Master (Foreign-Going) Practical Navigation

Paper 1 (3 hours)

  1. Find the Standard Times and Heights of High water and Low water on 4th October, 1952, at Dabo (A.T.T. 5032) and also the height of tide at 0540 hrs. on the same day.
  2. Find by great Circle Sailing (a) intial course, (b) final course, (c) Distance, and (d) course on crossing the equator, between-

“A” in 30° 00′ N., 153’15’W. and

“B” in 30°00′.,80°15’sW.

  1. On 16th February 1952, in D.R. Position 47°00′, N., 67°30′ W., time by chronometer 08h. orm. 35s. which was correct for G.M.T., the true altitude of an unknown star was 37° 10′ bearing 259°C., compass error 14°W. Identify the star.
  2. Between what latitudes and upon what course, will a steamer make 32 miles of departure and 1°02’s difference of longitude by steaming 50 miles ?
  3. Explain how a single position line may be of use to the navigator when the ship is near the land. Illustrate your explanation by a diagram.

Magnetic And Gyrocompass

Paper 2 (3 hours)

  1. A ship was swung for deviation and from the observations taken the following deviations were found-
Ship’s Head by Compass Deviation Ship’s Head by Compass Deviation
N 3°W S 5°E
N.E. 5°E S.W. 9°W
E. 3°W W 3°E
S.E. 3°W N.W . 5°W

Find the value of coefficients A, B, C, D and E and thence the deviations on ship’s head S.W. by W. by compass.

  1. Describe the three main causes of heeling error in a magnetic compass and state how they are compensated.
  2. What is “Lambda” ? State how the value of Lambda is ascertained.

With ships head 030°C., dev. 4°W., time taken by a vibrating needle to make 20 vibrations on board was 40 secs., and for the same number of vibrations on shore, the time taken was 50 secs. Find the value of Lambda for this ship”s heading.

  1. The repulsive force between two poles is 30 dynes when they are 6 cms. apart, what is it when this distance is reduced by 2 cms. ?
  2. Explain briefly what effect the speed of a ship has on her gyro compass and how this is compensated.

In Lat. 50°00′ N., a ship was steaming 348°T., at 15 kts. Find the speed error.

  1. Explain (a) Gyroscopic Inertia, (b) Procession.

Ship Construction And Stability

Paper 3 (3 hours)

  1. A vessel, floating in fresh water, has a compartment of her double buttom amidships, 48 ft. long and 25 ft. broad, partially filled with salt water. The vessel’s total displacement is 10,100 tons and the centre of gravity of the ship and water is 22 feet above the keel. Find the loss of metacentric height due to slack water.
  2. A vessel whose form is not known has certain draught at Madras, the sea water there being 64 lbs. per cubic foot. Off Garden Reach Jetty the water is 621/2 lbs. per cubic foot, it is noted that after 120 tons of fuel, water etc., have been consumed on the voyage, the draught of the vessel is again what it was at Madras, What is the displacement of the vessel in salt water ?
  3. A rectangular shaped lighter 120 ft. long, 45 ft. broad and 11 ft. deep, floating in salt water at 4 ft. even keel, has a collision bulkhead 7 ft. from the forward end. If the side is holed below water line forward of this bulkhead, what would be the trim of the lighter in this condition.
  4. (a) Define – (i) Gross Tonnage (ii) Net Tonnage.

(b) Name the spaces on board a ship which are allowed as exempted spaces in tonnage measurement.

  1. Explain the reasons why a steamer assigned a load line for carrying timber deck cargoes may load to a deeper draught than a similar vessel having an ordinary load line assigned to her.
  2. Describe how a stern tube is fitted in a single screw steamer, illustrate your answer with sketches.

Shipmaster’s Business

Paper 4 (2 hours)

  1. Calculate the balance of wages due to a seaman from the following particulars :-

Ordered on board 9 A.M. 20th March, 1952. Wages Rs. 75 per month. Wages on promotion from 19th June being Rs. 90 per month. Advance on joining Rs.30. Allotment Rs. 35 per month. Cash advances $3- 10-0 at Rs. 13.5 to $1 and 8 U.S. dollars at Rs. 480 to 100 dollars, Voyage ended 19th December, 1952.

  1. When is a ship considered to be a Constructive Total Loss?
  2. What conditions are necessary to be fulfilled before a Notice of Readiness can be given to charterers ?
  3. What is the meaning of the following terms ?

(a) Passenger, (b) Passenger Ship, (c) Unberthed Passenger Ship, (d) Pilgrim Ship.

  1. What ships are required to maintain an Official Log Book and state what entries are required to be made in it by law ?
  2. Describe the procedure for entering in your ship and penalties, if any, for failing to comply with the law in this regard.
  3. Under what circumstances can a master refuse to remit money home, in respect of a British seaman.
  4. (i) Is the master of a ship obliged to insert any stipulation regarding allotments made by a seaman in the agreement with the crew ?

(ii) With reference to allotment notes what is meant by (a) near relative; (b) saving bank?

Engineering And Electronic Navigational Aids

Paper 5 (3 hours)

Candidates must attempt question No. 4 and of the remainder two from Section A and three from Sec. B (six questions in all). Each question carries 25 marks.

Section A

  1. Describe how steam is raised in a Scotch boiler ?
  2. Explain with examples what is meant by (a) Mechanical Advantage; (b) Power.
  3. Describe with a diagram a refrigerating plant in which carbon dioxide and brine are used.

Section B

  1. A vessel steering 090°T., at 12 knots observed an echo on her P.P.I. bearing 037° Green, range 10 moles, and 20 minutes later the same echo bore 048° Green, range 8 miles. Find by plotting, the true course and speed of the other vessel. Assume that no alteration of course or speed is made by either vessel.
  2. Explain Ohm’s law.
  3. 10 kilowatt dynamo generates current at 110 volts. How many 60 watt lamps can it light without overloading the dynamo ?
  4. What is the difference between a volmeter and an ammeter ?
  5. What are the three main natural phenomena which make radar possible ?
  6. Describe briefly the principle of a Thermionic valve.

Meteorology

Paper 6 (2 hours)

  1. The following is an extract from a Weather Bulletin for Shipping Part I. TTT Cyclone warning Arabian Sea at twelve GMT fifteenth November ??

Cyclonic storm in East Central Arabian Sea apparently severe centred at twelve GMT fifteenth November within one degree of latitude eighteen repeat eighteen degrees north longitude sixty-six repeat sixty-six degrees east with estimated central pressure nine hundred and ninety-four repeat nind hundred and ninety-four millibars ?? May move north to northeast ??.

PART II. Scattered showers South Arabian Sea. .

Ships Reports
PART V.
53106 75412 63005 98021 06186
53010 75312 72713 98031 07529
53172 65212 82828 15656 00381
53075 73012 42915 89011 06630
Station Reports
PART VI
99942 84063 72702 98022 07090
82952 80000 98022 07788
90974 81411 96022 05584
73155 80709 98022 06985
63533 80507 97502 08885
99943 05777 52505 98021 06585
10976 61409 98021 07086
49775 83603 96506 06579
46672 80206 96615 07873
41875 73207 97012 06981
35176 82911 97966 06583
28376 32705 97011 07285
22677 67702 99021 07086
11749 20000 98011 06487
31469 72911 98039 06487
99941 78047 70707 96002 08689
Analysis
PART IV
10001 33388 01512
89294 31866 31866 00210
66880 31663 31866 32169 31075
44998 31966 31766 31867 31966
44002 32067 31965 31665 31667 31868 32067
44006 32072 32265 31862 31366 31569 32072
44008 32465 32060 31062 30568 19191

(a) Draw the weather chart from the above showing isobars at intervals of 4 millibars.

(b) At the time of the above observations your vessel was in Lat. 22°OON., Long, 63°00., E. steaming 110°T., at 9 kts.

Make a weather forecast for the next 12 hours.

N.B. – A clear language decode is not required in this question. The candidate may, if he wishes, decode and plot the information directly on the chart.

  1. Describe any two of the four standard types of clouds.

Specimen Set Of Examination Papers For Mate (Home Trade) Practical Navigation

Paper 1 (3 hours)

  1. On 6th June 1952, in position 18°00′ N., 87°30’E., when the correct G.M.T. was 10h. 58m. 2s., the sun bore 294°C. Required the error of the compass and the deviation for the direction of the ship’s head if the variation was 1’1/2° W.
  2. On 19th February, 1952, in Longuide 87°50′ E., the sextant altitude of the sun’s lower limb on the meridian was 57°1′, bearing south, height of eye 35 feet, index error 1.5 off the arc. Required the latitude.
  3. On 27th December, 1952, in E.P. 6’1 YN., 81’44’E when the time by chronometer which was 1 m. 6s slow on G.M.T. was 06h. 23m. 02s., the sextant altitude of the sun’s lower limb near the meridian was 60°15′.5, height of eye 30 feet, index error 2′.0 on the arc.

Required the direction of the position line and the latitude in which it crosses the estimated longitude.

  1. On 15th April, 1952, in D.R. position 20°05′ N., 87°30′ E., when the correct G.M.T. was 02h. 20m. 00s., the sextant altitude of the sun’s lower limb, east of the meridian was 33°40′.5, height of eye 40 feet, index error 2′.0 on the arc. Required the direction of the position line and a position through which passes.

Elementary Ship Knowledge

Paper 2 (2 hours)

  1. A vessel’s mean light draught is 8′ 0″ with a displacement of.650 tons. The displacement corresponding to the mean draughts of 9′ 0″, 11′ 0, 12′ 0′ 12′ 0″ and 14′ 0″ are 750, 850, 975, 1100, 1250 and 1400 tons respectively construct a displacement curve and from the curve find the following :

(a) Displacement 11′ 6″ mean draught.

(b) Deadweight at 13′ 6″ mean draught.

  1. The displacement of a vessel is 1200 tons. A weight of 20 tons already on board is lifted vertically upwards from the tank top and placed on deck. The distance between the tank top and the deck is 12 feet. Calculate the change in the position of the centre of gravity of the vessel.
  2. What is the main purpose of framing in the construction of a ship? Sketch and describe a type of framing with which you are familiar.
  3. Ships are allowed to load to a deeper draught in fresh water than in salt water. Give the reasons.
  4. What safety measures are necessary wehn (a) taking off hatch beams, and (b) when placing them back in position ?

Chartworkand Pilotage

Paper 3 (2 hours) (excluding oral questions)

Chart No. 824-White point to Mergui.

Deviation Card No. 1, Variation 2° W, and speed of 10 knots throughout.

  1. Required the compass courses to steer, and the distances on each course from a position with White Point bearing 042°T., distant 14.5 miles to a position with Reef Island Lt.Ho. bearing 000°T., distant 12 miles, altering course when South Island of Launglon Bok, South Moscos Island (1186 feet ) bears 090°T., distant 8.5 miles.
  2. After steaming for 2 hours on 149°C., from a position 14°35′ N., 97°21′ E., North Inland of Maugmagom, Middle Moscos Island (1210 feet) bore 127°C., and Quoini Island bore 085°C. Find the ship’s position and the set and drift experienced.
  3. From a position with Reef Island Lt. Ho.bearing 340°T., distant 12 miles, set a course to pass 7 miles off Great Ganister Island (1084 feet) allowing for a current estimated to be setting 080 T., at 2 knots. Find the compass course to steer and the distance made good in one hour.
  4. A ship steering 036°T., is to alter course when the N.E. extreme of Grindstone I (Kathema kyun) is just open of Reef 1. (Mibya kyun) and distant 3 miles from Reef I. Lt.Ho. (309 feet). Required.

(a) Ship’s position at time of altering course.

(b) Vertical sextant angle subtended by Reef I.Lt. Ho.

  1. What correction must be applied to a cast of the lead when approaching Navalakhi at 0610 (Indian Standard Time) on 10th July, 1952, before comparing it with the chart?
  2. Oral questions by the Examiner.

Meteorology

Paper 4 (1½ hours)

  1. Describe the principle of a mercurial barometer.
  2. (a) How do you obtain the true direction of the wind on board a ship?

(b) Describe the wind indicated by force 6 Beaufort Scale.

  1. Give the various meteorological observations you would record in the Log Book whilst on watch at sea during the Wouth West Monsoon, and name the instruments required for making these observations.
  2. Why is mercury generally used in the construction of a thermometer ? What is the boiling point on (a) the Centigrade scale thermometer, and (b) on the Fahrenheit thermometer?
  3. Explain the causes of the North East monsoon.
  4. What is the normal track of cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and during what months are these cyclones most severe ?

Specimen Set Of Examination Papers For Master (Home Trade) Chartwork And Pilotage (Excluding Oral Questions)

Paper 1 (2 hours)

Chart No. 750. West Coast of India-Malabar Coast. Deviation Card No. 1, and Variation 3½° W. throught.

  1. A ship in D.R. Position 09°50′ N., 76°01′ E., observed the bearing of a star to be 108°T., intercept Nil. A course was set to a position with Alleppey Lt. bearing 090°T., distant 4’h miles. After steatment for I h. 36m. at 10 knots Alleppey Lt. bore 116°T. Find the distance off Alleppey Lt. at the time of taking this bearing.
  2. Form the anchorage off Turcunapulli,

(a) Find the compass course to steer to a position with Quilon Lt. (135 ft.) bearing 059°T., distant 5 miles ;

(b) After steaming for 2 hours at 10 knots on the compass course found in Q.2 (a), the following compass bearing were obtained to fix the ship’s position :

Quilon Lt. (135 ft.) ……………………………………………………….100½°C.

Church and conspicuous Casuarina tree ……………………….052½°C.

Find the distance off Quilon Lt., and the rate and direction of the current experienced since leaving the anchorage.

  1. From a position with Quilon Lt. (135 ft.) bearing 059°T., distant 4 miles, find the compass course to steer to a position 08°40′ E., allowing for a current setting 296°T., at 2½ knots, ship steaming 10.5 knots. Find also the distance made good in 11/2 hours.
  2. Off Chittagong on 20th October, 1952, find the height of the tide at 2205 Indian Standard Time.
  3. Oral questions by the Examiner.

Practical Navigation

Paper 2 (2 hours)

  1. On 8th May, 1952, at about 7.45 P.M. at ship in D.R. Position 21°35’N., 68°30′ E., chronometer time 03h. 24m. 20s., which was 6m. 20s. fast on G.M.T., the Moon bore 1291 °C. Find the Moon’s true bearing, the error of the compass and the deviation for the direction of the ship’s head if the variation was 1° 30′ E.
  2. Find the Indian Standard Time of meridian passage of the star BETELGUESE (16) on 1st October, 1952, in Long. 95°00′ E.
  3. On 8th February, 1952, from the following observation of the Sun near the meridian, find the direction of the position line and the latitude in which it crosses the D.R. Longitude.

D.R. Position 19°56′ N., 89°35′ E.

Sextant altitude Sun’s lower limb, 54°17′ 30″.

Index error 2′.5 off the arc.

Height of ye 20 feet.

Chronometer time : 06h. 00m. 00s.

Chronometer error : 1m, 40s. fast on G.M.T.

  1. From the following observation of a star east of the meridian, find the position line and position through which it passes :

Date at ship : 6th July, 1952, at about 5.30 A.M.

D.R. Position 06°40′ N.

Sextant altitude ALDEBARAN (10) was 28°32″30″.

Index error 1′.5 on the arc.

Height of ey 23 feet.

Chronometer time :00h. 00m. 01s. which was correct on G.M.T.

  1. Using the Constellation of Ursae Majoris (Great Bear) as a guide discribe with a diagram how you would find the star ARCTURUS (37).

Stability And Seaworthiness

Paper 3 (2 hours)

  1. Define the following :

Metacentric Height and Righting Lever.

  1. A vessel of 3,250 tons displacement has a K.G. of 14 feet. She loads 1,200 tons of cargo which has a K.G. of 8 feet and 150 tons of bunkers with a K.G. of 10 feet. Find the new K.G.
  2. A vessel of 2,600 tons displacement has a G.M. of 2.5. feet. A parcel of cargo weighing 100 Eons, already on board, is raised 16 feet from the after end of the lower hold and stowed vertically above in the after end of the between deck. Find the new G.M.
  3. A vessel whose tons per inch (T.P.I.) is 25 and moment to alter trim 1 inch (M.C.T.) 450 foot-tons, is on an even keel draught of 12 feet at a certain instant during loading operations, when a weight of 50 tons, the centre of gravity of which is 95 feet abaft the centre of floatation, is loaded into No. 4 hold. Find the new draughts assuming the centre of floatation to be amidships.
  4. Describe the precautions to be taken with a view to preventing the outbreak of fire in cargo of coal.
  5. Whilst leaving dock, your vessel accidentally comes into contact with the dock wall in way of No. 1 hold. Two plates below main deck level are appreciably indented and some flame are set in. Would you consider this to affect the seaworthiness of your ship ? If so, what action would you take.

Compass Deviation

Paper 4 (1½ hours)

  1. Describe the terms “hard” and “soft” iron and their properties with regard to acquiring and retaining magnetism.
  2. What kind of corrector is used to compensate for that part of the deviation caused by vertical soft iron, and where is this corrector usually placed? Explain your reasons.
  3. What system of wiring should be used for the electric lighting of a compass from a D.C. supply. Give your reasons.
  4. An old compass card is removed and replaced by a new one. Would the compensation for the old card do equally well for the new card? Explain the reasons for your answer.
  5. Having taken the following bearing of a distant object, find its magnetic bearing and construct a Table of deviations on the headings given :
Compass Ships Head by Compass Compass Bearing Ship’s Head by Compass Compass Bearing
North 005° South 357°
N.E. 007° S.W. 354°
East 010° West 355°
S.E. 359° N.W. 001°

Meteorology

Paper 5 (1½ hours)

  1. A vessel steaming 045°T at 15 knots has an apparent wind of force 4 from right ahead. What, in actual fact, is the true force and direction of the wind.
  2. Using the Beaufort weather notation, how would you log the following:-

Overcast sky, passing showers, and unusual visibility

  1. Describe the use of the Hydrometer, and the Hygrometer.
  2. Describe the winds and currents in the Bay of Bengal in the month of May.
  3. In a Bay of Bengal Cyclone, the wind shifts from East to South-East. What semi-circle of the storm are you in and what action would you take?
  4. Decode the following message received from another ship :-

53059 : 96100 : 72719 : 98031 : 06877.

APPENDIX L

Syllabus Fro Voluntary Examination Compass Deviation

Written Examination (Time allowed 4 hours)

Electric currents and their production. Simple cells. Electromotive force, resistance and current, Ohm’s Law. Polarisation. Magnetic fields and lines of force. Induced magnetism. Hard and soft iron. The magnetic field of conductors. Carrying current, Solenoids and electro-magnets, Terrestrial magnetism. Horizontal force, vertical force, and dip. The effect of magnetic fields of all descriptions on the compass needle. Elementary principles of dynamos and motors.

A fuller knowledge of the syllabus in Compass Correction for Master, with, in addition, the correction of coefficient E. The components of the permanent magnetism of the ship, P.Q. and R; the soft iron rods, a, c, e & k. The relation severally of these components and rods to the various coefficients and to heeling error.

Swinging ship. Construction of deviation tables by bearings of a distant object, reciprocal bearings and azimuths of a heavenly body. Practical analysis of a deviation table and practical compass correction.

APPENDIX M

FORMS OF CERTIFICATES

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

CERTIFICATE OF COMPETENCY

AS

NO ……………………

SECOND MATE

OF A FOREIGN GOING STEAM-SHIP

To …………………..

Whereas it has been duly reported that you have been found qualified to fulfil the duties of Second Mate of a Foreign-going Steamship in the Merchant Service, the President of India does hereby, in pursuance of Act XXI of 1923, grant you this certificate of Competency.

Dated this …………….day of………….20.

Countersigned ……………………………………..

Received in the

Secy. to the Govt. of India.

Director General of Shipping

Directorate General of Shipping

Bombay.

N.B. – This Certificate of Competency is of the same force as if it had been granted under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, but in case the holder is an alien, it is subject to the provision of Sec. 5(1) of the U.K. Alien Restriction (Amendment) Act, 1919.

Signature of owners ……………

Date of Birth ……………………..

Place of Birth ……………………

This Certificate is given upon an Examination passed at ………………………on the …………………… day of …………….. 20 …………….. Issued at the Port of ………………..on the ……………………….. day of …………….20.

……………………..Officer.

Additional Qualifications

This Certificate is liable to be cancelled or suspended by the appropriate Court or Tribunal under sub-section (5) of Sec. 478 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 (57 and 58 Vict.,Ch.60) or by the Central Government under Sec. 260 of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act, 1923 (Act XXI of 1923). Any Master or Mate who fails to deliver up a Certificate which has been cancelled or suspended is liable to a penalty not exceeding Rs. 500. N.B.- Any person other than the owner thereof becoming possessed of this Certificate is required to transmit it forthwith to the Principal Officer, Mercantile Bombay.

Marine Department Bombay/Culcutta

FORMS OF CERTIFICATES

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

CERTIFICATE OF COMPETENCY

AS

NO …………………

FIRST MATE OFA FOREIGN-GOING

STEAMSHIP

To ……………..

Wheareas it has been duly reported that you have been found qualified to fulfil the duties of First Mate of a Foreign-going Steamship in the Merchant Service, the President of India does hereby, in pursuance of Act XXI of 1923, grant you this Certificate of Competency.

Dated this ……………….day of ……………20………………..

Countersigned ………………………

Registered in the

Secy. to the Govt. of India./Director General of Shipping

Directorate General of Shipping

Bombay

N.B. – This Certificate of Competency is of the same force as if it had been granted under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, but in case the holder is an alien, it is subject to the provisions of Sec. 5(1) of the U.K. Alien Restriction (Amendment) Act, 1919.

Signature of owner …………………….

Date of Birth …………………………….

Place of Birth ……………………………

This Certificate is given upon an Examination passed at ……………………on the ………………day of………………20 ………………………..Issued at the Port of ……………….on the ……………day of…………. 20……………

……………..Officer.

Additional Qualifications

This Certificate is liable to be cancelled or suspended by the appropriate Court or Tribunal under sub-section (5) of Sec. 478 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 (57 and 58 Vict., Ch 60) or by the Central Government under Sec. 260 of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act, 1923 (Act XXI of 1923). Any Master or Mate who fails to deliver up a Certificate which has been cancelled or suspended is liable to a penalty not exceeding Rs. 500.

N.B. – Any person other than the owner thereof becoming possessed of this Certificate is required to transmit it forthwith to the Principal Officer, Mercantile Marine Department Bombay/Calcutta

FORMS OF CERTIFICATES

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

CERTIFICATE OF COMPETENCY

AS

NO ……………………

MASTER OF A FOREIGNPGOING

STEAMSHIP

To ………………..

Wheareas it has been duly reported that you have been found qualified to fulfil the duties of Master of a Foreign-going Steamship in the Merchant Service, the President of India does hereby, in pursuance of Act XXI of 1923, grant you this Certificate of Competency.

Dated this ………………………………………day of……………………….20……………………………

Countersigned ……………………………

Registered in the

Secy. to the Govt. of India/Directorate General of Shipping

Director General of Shipping.

Bombay

Signature of owner …………………….

Date of Birth …………………………..

Place of Birth ………………………..

This Certificate is given upon an Examination passed at ……………..on the ……………….day of……………..20………………Issued at the Port of ………………on the ………………..day of 20.

…………………Officer.

Additional Qualifications

This Certificate is liable to be cancelled or suspended by the appropriate Court or Tribunal under sub-section (5) of Sec. 478 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 (57 and 58 Vict., Ch. 60) or by the Central Govenment under Sec. 260 of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act, 1923 (Act XXI of 1923). Any Master or Mate who fails to deliver up a Certificate which has been cancelled or suspended is liable to a penalty not exceeding Rs. 500.

N.B. – Any person other than the owner thereof becoming possessed of this Certificate is required to transmit it forthwith to the Principal Officer, Mercantile Marine Department Bombay/Calcutta

FORMS OF CERTIFICATES

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

CERTIFICATE OF COMPETENCY

AS

NO ………………………….

MATE OF A HOME TRADE STEAMSHIP

To …………….

Whereas it has been duly reported that you have been found qualified to fulfil the Duties of Mate of a Home Trade Seamship in the Merchant Service, the President of India Joes hereby, in pursuance of Act XXI of 1923, grant you this Certificate of Competency.

Dated this …………………day of……………. 20……………..

Countersigned ……………….

Registered in the

Directorate General of Shipping Bombay

Secy. to the Govt. of India / Director General of Shipping.

Signature of Owner …………………….

Date of Birth ……………………………..

Place of Birth …………………………….

This Certificate is given upon an Examination passed at ………….on the ………day of………….20 ……………. Issued at the Port of ……………on the ………………….day of ………………..20.

……………………………Officer.

Additional Qualifications

This Certificate is liable to be cancelled or suspended by the Central Government under Sec. 260 of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act, 1923 (Act XXI of 1923). Any Master or Mate who fails to deliver up a Certificate which has been cancelled or suspended is liable to a penalty not exceeding Rs. 500.

N.B. – Any person other than the owner thereof becoming possessed of this Certificate is required to transmit it forthwith to the Principal Officer, Mercantile Marine Department Bombay/Calcutta

FORMS OF CERFICATE

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

CERTIRCATE COMPETENCY

AS

NO …………………………

MATE OF A HOME TRADE STEAMSHIP

To ………………….

Whereas it has been duly reported that you have been qualified to fulfil the duties of Master of a Home Trade Steamship in the Merchant Service, the President of India does hereby, in pursuance of Act XXI of 1923 grant you this Certificate of Competency.

Dated this ………………….day of………….20…………….

Countersigned ……………….

Registered in the

Directorate General of Shipping Bombay

Secy. to the Govt. of India/Director General of Shipping.

Signature of Owner ……………………

Date of Birth ……………………………..

Place of Birth …………………………….

This Certificate is given upon an Examination passed at ………………on the ……………day of………….20 ……………. Issued at the Port of ………………on the ………………….day of ………………..20.

……………………………Officer.

Additional Qualifications

This Certificate is liable to be cancelled or suspended by the Central Government under Sec. 260 of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act, 1923 (Act XXI of 1923).

Any Master or Mate who fails to deliver up a Certificate which has been cancelled or suspended is liable to a penalty not exceeding Rs. 500.

N.B. – Any person other than the owner thereof becoming possessed of this Certificate is required to transmit it forthwith to the Principal Officer, Mercantile Marine Department Bombay/Calcutta

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