The JJ Act, 2015 accommodates reinforced arrangements for the two youngsters needing consideration and insurance and kids in strife with law. A portion of the key arrangements include: change in classification from ‘adolescent’ to ‘kid’ or ‘kid in struggle with law’, over the Act to expel the negative meaning related with “adolescent”; consideration of a few new definitions, for example, stranded, relinquished and surrendered youngsters; and insignificant, genuine and deplorable offenses conferred by kids; lucidity in forces, capacity and obligations of Juvenile Justice Board (JJB) and Child Welfare Committee (CWC); clear courses of events for request by Juvenile Justice Board (JJB); unique arrangements for grievous offenses submitted by kids over the age of sixteen year; isolate new section on Adoption to streamline selection of vagrant, deserted and surrendered kids; incorporation of new offenses conferred against kids; and obligatory enrollment of Child Care Institutions.
Q1-When did the Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act,2015 came into force?
Ans-The Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act,2000 has replaced and came up with the Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act,2015 which came into force on 15 January,2016.
Q2-Who is Juvenile in Conflict of Law with respect to the Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015 ?
Ans-The term “Juvenile” means a person who has not completed 18 years of age & is below the age of 18 years. Therefore, “Juvenile” i.e child in conflict with law means a child who has committed an offence but has not completed 18 years of age on the date when the offence took place.
Q3-What is the age of criminal responsibility in India according to the Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015 ?
Ans-Under the Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015 which provides the criminal responsibility, the age of criminal majority starts from the age of 16 to 18 years whosoever commits a serious offence. Thus, also attracts a minimum 7 years of imprisonment. Also, no child under the Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015 can be awarded a Death Penalty & Life Imprisonment.
Q4-What are the main objectives of Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015 ?
Ans- The Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015, aims to focus and change the law related to Juvenile’s i.e. children who are supposed & found to be in conflict with the law & children in need of Care & Protection by fulfilling their basic necessities through proper care & nourishment, protection, treatment, social integration, trainings and also by adopting a child-friendly approach.
Q5-What are the key provisions of Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015 ?
Ans- Change in classification from ‘adolescent’ to ‘kid’ or ‘kid in strife with law’, over the Act to expel the negative implication related with “adolescent”.
Incorporation of a few new definitions, for example, stranded, deserted and surrendered kids; and negligible, genuine and egregious offenses conferred by kids;
Lucidity in forces, capacity and obligations of Juvenile Justice Board (JJB) and Child Welfare Committee (CWC); clear timetables for request by Juvenile Justice Board (JJB); The Act commands setting up Juvenile Justice Boards and Child Welfare Committees in each area. Both must have no less than one lady part each.
Unique arrangements for shocking offenses submitted by youngsters over the age of sixteen years –
Under Section 15, extraordinary arrangements have been made to handle tyke guilty parties conferring egregious offenses in the age gathering of 16-18 years. The Juvenile Justice Board is given the alternative to exchange instances of grievous offenses by such youngsters to a Children’s (Court of Session) subsequent to leading preparatory appraisal. The arrangements accommodate setting kids in a ‘position of wellbeing’ both amid and after the trial till they accomplish the age of 21 years after which an assessment of the youngster should be directed by the Children’s Court. \. The law will go about as an obstacle for youngster guilty parties submitting grievous offenses, for example, assault and kill and will secure the privileges of casualty.
Isolate new section on Adoption to streamline appropriation of vagrant, relinquished and surrendered kids – To streamline reception strategies for vagrant, deserted and surrendered kids, the current Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) is given the status of a statutory body to empower it to play out its capacity all the more successfully. Isolate section (VIII) on Adoption accommodates nutty gritty arrangements identifying with reception and disciplines for not conforming to the set down system.
Procedures have been streamlined with courses of events for both in-nation and between nation appropriations including proclaiming a youngster legitimately free for reception. According to the arrangements, a solitary or separated from individual can likewise embrace, yet a solitary male can’t receive a young lady youngster.
Consideration of new offenses conferred against kids – Several new offenses submitted against kids, which are so far not enough secured under some other law, are incorporated into the Act. These include: deal and acquisition of kids for any reason including unlawful appropriation, beating in youngster mind foundations, utilization of type by activist gatherings, offenses against impaired kids and, grabbing and kidnapping of kids.
Punishments for pitilessness against a type, offering an opiate substance to a tyke, and snatching or offering a youngster have been recommended. Any official, who does not report a deserted or stranded youngster inside 24 hours, is at risk to detainment up to a half year or fine of Rs 10,000 or both. The punishment for non-enlistment of type mind foundations is detainment up to one year or fine of one lakh rupees, or both. The punishment for giving a type inebriating alcohol, opiate or psychotropic substances is detainment up to seven years or fine of one lakh rupees, or both.
Obligatory enrollment of Child Care Institutions – All youngster mind establishments, whether keep running by State Government or by deliberate or non-administrative associations, which are implied, either entirely or in part to house kids, paying little respect to whether they get awards from the Government, are to be obligatorily enlisted under the Act inside a half year from the date of initiation of the Act. Stringent punishment is given in the law if there should be an occurrence of resistance.
A few restoration and social reintegration measures have been given to youngsters in struggle with law and those needing consideration and insurance. Under the institutional care, youngsters are given different administrations including instruction, wellbeing, sustenance, de-habit, treatment of infections, professional preparing, ability improvement, fundamental ability training, directing, and so forth to enable them to accept a useful part in the general public. The assortment of non-institutional alternatives include: sponsorship and child care including bunch child care for putting kids in a family situation which is other than youngster’s organic family, which is to be chosen, qualified, affirmed and administered for giving consideration to kids.
Q6-Discuss the Punishment for Offences against Children under the Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015 ?
Ans- The JJ Act, 2015 incorporates a different part on offenses against youngster and a few of the offenses recorded in this section were so far not enough secured under some other law.
These incorporate deal and acquisition of kids for any reason including illicit reception, beating in organizations, giving kids inebriating alcohol or opiate medicate or psychotropic substance or tobacco items, utilization of kid by activist or grown-up gatherings, offenses against crippled kids and, seizing and kidnapping of youngsters.
Further, the JJ Act , 2015 endorses discipline for the different offenses against kids, for example, upgraded discipline for mercilessness to youngsters from a half year to three years. The offering or purchasing of youngsters will be a culpable offense with detainment of five years. Beating inside a Child Care Institution will be a culpable offense. Appropriation without recommended methodology should be culpable with detainment upto three years or fine of Rs.1 lakh or with both. For the compelling usage of these arrangements, JJ Model Rules, 2016 accommodates kid cordial methodology for detailing, recording and trial.
Q7-What is the role of State Of State Government for Protection of Juvenile in Conflict with law?
Ans- The Act accommodates acceptance preparing of Members of Juvenile Justice Board and Child Welfare Committee inside two months of their arrangement (Section 4 and 27).
a-The Chief Judicial Magistrate or Chief Metropolitan Magistrate is to audit pendency of cases in the Juvenile Justice Board once in three months and direct the Board to build the recurrence of sittings or prescribe constitution of extra Board (Section 16).
b-There is an arrangement for the constitution of a High Level Committee to survey the pendency of cases in the Juvenile Justice Board.
c-Under Section 36 of the JJ Act, 2015 Child Welfare Committees are relied upon to submit quarterly reports to the District Magistrate with respect to pendency and nature of transfer of cases. The District Magistrate is required to lead quarterly audit of the Child Welfare Committees and direct healing measures to address the pendency. The District Magistrate might send a report of his survey to the State Government which may cause the constitution of extra boards of trustees, if required. In the event that the pendency of cases proceeds even following three months, the State Government should end the current Committee and constitute another Committee.
The State Governments have additionally to enlist all establishments inside a half year of the initiation of the JJ Act , 2015 whether such foundations are controlled by the Government or by a NGO and are implied either completely or halfway to house youngsters. The prerequisite of enrollment of foundations is independent of whether they are getting gifts from Government or not. The State Government is required to issue a temporary enrollment endorsement to the organization inside one month from the date of use. There is additionally punishment gave of one year detainment or fine of at the very least Rs. 1 lakh for non enlistment of a Child Care Institution (Section 42).
Q8- How does the Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) come into picture with the Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015 ?
Ans- The New Adoption Regulations, 2017 will be effective from 16 January 2017. The Regulations were framed by ‘Central Adoption Resource Authority’ (CARA) as mandated under section 68 (c) of Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015. Salient features of the Adoption Regulations, 2017-:
- a) Procedures related to adoption by relatives both within the country and abroad have been defined in the Regulations.
- b) Validity of Home Study Report has been increased from two to three years.
- c) The time period available to the domestic PAPs for matching and acceptance, after reserving the child referred, has been increased to twenty days from the existing fifteen days.
d)There are 32 Schedules annexed to the Regulations including model adoption applications to be filed in the Court and this would considerably address delays prevalent in obtaining the Court order.
- e) CARA shall be facilitating all adoptions under the JJ Act, 2015 through Child Adoption Resource Information & Guidance System (CARINGS) and all kinds of adoptions, including adoptions by relatives shall be reported to CARA which would enable safeguards for all adopted children by maintaining their record and ensuring adoption.
Q9-What are the Rehabilitation and Re-integration services mentioned under the Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015?
Ans-The administrations that should be given, by the foundations enlisted under this Act during the time spent recovery and re-reconciliation of youngsters, might be in such way as might be endorsed, which may incorporate—
i.essential prerequisites, for example, nourishment, safe house, garments and medicinal consideration according to the endorsed norms
- hardware, for example, wheel-seats, prosthetic gadgets, listening devices, Braille packs, or some other reasonable guides and apparatuses as required, for youngsters with uncommon necessities;
iii. suitable instruction, including supplementary training, custom curriculum, and proper training for youngsters with uncommon necessities.
Every institution shall have a Management Committee, to be set up in a manner as may be prescribed, to manage the institution and monitor the progress of every child. The officer in-charge of every institution, housing children above six years of age, shall facilitate setting up of children’s committees for participating in such activities as may be prescribed, for the safety and well-being of children in the institution.
Q10- Is Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015 a major step backward?
Ans-Indeed, in the dynamic and forward-looking theory of adolescent equity, the new demonstration has overlooked the advancements in disciplines like criminology, penology, victimology, neuroscience, remedial equity that has gained ground in managing people conferring offenses and casualties of offenses.
While remedial practice is being polished in numerous nations notwithstanding for genuine offenses bringing about reduction in rehash offenses by them, the Indian parliament went under the political and enthusiastic weight made by one awful instance of primitive group assault in which blamed happened to be a youngster very nearly accomplishing greater part.
Q11-What can be concluded by the Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015?
Ans- The legal procedure identifying with adolescent equity framework is set apart by the strain between the defensive approach of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, and the conventional way to deal with managing crime. While the higher courts as a rule have advanced the care and insurance logic of the adolescent equity framework the conditions offering ascend to them and the choice there under demonstrate the ignorance at all levels of the legal procedure. The requirement for making mindfulness among the lower legal about the procedural contrasts between the trials of grown-up and blamed child, can’t be overemphasized.
The Supreme Court on 6 April 2015 asked the legislature to achieve essential changes in the adolescent law with a specific end goal to have a hindrance impact and to make an impression on the general public that life of the casualty was similarly essential under the govern of law. Expressing it was “to a great degree troublesome” to acknowledge that an adolescent reprobate would not know about the results while perpetrating violations like assault, murder and dacoity. The court said that the spurt in association of minors in such appalling wrongdoings called upon a basic need to reflect on changes in the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000.
The Author, Kavisha Gupta, is a 2nd Year student of Bartiya Vidyapeeth New Law College, Pune. She is currently interning with LatestLaws.com